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      Inflammation, Malnutrition and Atherosclerosis in End-Stage Renal Disease: A Global Perspective

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          Abstract

          End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by an exceptional cardiovascular mortality rate. Although traditional risk factors are common in ESRD patients, they alone may not be sufficient to account for the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent evidence demonstrated that chronic inflammation, a non-traditional risk factor which is commonly observed in ESRD patients, may cause malnutrition and progressive atherosclerotic CVD by several pathogenetic mechanisms. Although both malnutrition and inflammation have been shown to be strong predictors of cardiovascular mortality in ESRD patients, it must be remembered that the majority of studies describing the presence of inflammation and malnutrition have been performed in Western and Asian industrialized countries. As it is evident that the prevalence of malnutrition and inflammation may differ markedly between different regions of the world and developing countries face a much higher prevalence of chronic infectious diseases, comparative inter-regional studies focusing on the etiology and prevalence of the malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis syndrome are warranted.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Factors predicting malnutrition in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study.

          Signs of protein-energy malnutrition are common in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the nutritional status and relationship between various parameters used for assessing malnutrition, we performed a cross-sectional study in 128 unselected patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) thrice weekly for at least two weeks. Global nutritional status was evaluated by the subjective global nutritional assessment (SGNA). Body weight, skinfold thicknesses converted into % body fat mass (BFM), mid-arm muscle circumference, hand-grip strength and several laboratory values, including serum albumin (SA1b), plasma insulin-like growth factor I (p-IGF-I), serum C-reactive protein (SCRP) and plasma free amino acids, were recorded. Dose of dialysis and protein equivalence of nitrogen appearance (nPNA) were evaluated by urea kinetic modeling. The patients were subdivided into three groups based on SGNA: group I, normal nutritional status (36%); group II, mild malnutrition (51%); and group III, moderate or (in 2 cases) severe malnutrition (13%). Clinical factors associated with malnutrition were: high age, presence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. nPNA and Kt/V(urea) were similar in the three groups. However, when normalized to desirable body wt, both were lower in groups II and III than in group I. Anthropometric factors associated with malnutrition were low body wt, skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and handgrip strength. Biochemical factors associated with malnutrition were low serum levels of albumin and creatinine and low plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine and valine). The serum albumin (SAlb) level was not only a predictor of nutritional status, but was independently influenced by age, sex and SCRP. Plasma IGF-1 levels also reflected the presence and severity of malnutrition and appeared to be more closely associated than SAlb with anthropometric and biochemical indices of somatic protein mass. Elevated SCRP (> 20 mg/liter), which mainly reflected the presence of infection/inflammation and was associated with hypoalbuminemia, was more common in malnourished patients than in patients with normal nutritional status, and also more common in elderly than in younger patients. Plasma amino acid levels, with the possible exception of the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine), seem to be poor predictors of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.
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            Nutritional status and its relationship to quality of life in a sample of chronic hemodialysis patients.

            To assess the relationship between nutritional status and quality of life in a sample of chronic hemodialysis patients.
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              Inflammatory and Atherosclerotic Interactions in the Depleted Uremic Patient

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7480-8
                978-3-318-00898-2
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2002
                2002
                30 August 2002
                : 20
                : 5
                : 454-458
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and bDivision of Nephrology, Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil
                Article
                63559 Blood Purif 2002;20:454–458
                10.1159/000063559
                12207091
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 19, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/63559
                Categories
                Proceedings

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Atherosclerosis, Developing countries, Malnutrition, Inflammation

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