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      Convergent evolution of ramified antennae in insect lineages from the Early Cretaceous of Northeastern China

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          Abstract

          Antennae are important, insect sensory organs that are used principally for communication with other insects and the detection of environmental cues. Some insects independently evolved ramified (branched) antennae, which house several types of sensilla for motion detection, sensing olfactory and chemical cues, and determining humidity and temperature levels. Though ramified antennae are common in living insects, occasionally they are present in the Mesozoic fossil record. Here, we present the first caddisflies with ramified antennae, the earliest known fossil sawfly, and a scorpionfly also with ramified antennae from the mid-Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Northeastern China, dated at 125 million years ago (Ma). These three insect taxa with ramified antennae consist of three unrelated lineages and provide evidence for broad structural convergence that historically has been best demonstrated by features such as convergent mouthparts. In addition, ramified antennae in these Mid-Mesozoic lineages likely do not constitute a key innovation, as they are not associated with significantly increased diversification compared with closely related lineages lacking this trait, and nor are they ecologically isolated from numerous, co-occurring insect species with unmodified antennae.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Proc Biol Sci
          Proc. Biol. Sci
          RSPB
          royprsb
          Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
          The Royal Society
          0962-8452
          1471-2954
          28 September 2016
          : 283
          : 1839
          Affiliations
          [1 ] College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University , 105 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, People's Republic of China
          [2 ] Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution , Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA
          [3 ] Department of Entomology and BEES Program, University of Maryland , College Park, MD 20742, USA
          [4 ] Department of Crop and Agroenvironmental Sciences, University of Puerto Rico , Mayagüez, PR 00681, USA
          Author notes

          Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3469749.

          Article
          PMC5046901 PMC5046901 5046901 rspb20161448
          10.1098/rspb.2016.1448
          5046901
          27683369
          © 2016 The Author(s)

          Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

          Funding
          Funded by: Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team at University;
          Award ID: IRT13081
          Funded by: Great Wall Scholar and KEY project of Beijing Municipal Commission of Education Project;
          Award ID: KZ201310028033
          Funded by: National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program);
          Award ID: 2012CB821906
          Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809;
          Award ID: 31230065
          Award ID: 31401993
          Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China;
          Award ID: 41272006
          Categories
          1001
          70
          144
          183
          Research Articles
          Custom metadata
          September 28, 2016

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