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      Relationship between clinical symptoms and transmission of an infectious disease and the implications for control

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          Abstract

          Control of many infectious diseases relies on the detection of clinical cases and the isolation, removal or treatment of cases and their contacts. The success of such ‘reactive’ strategies is influenced by the fraction of transmission occurring before symptoms appear. We performed experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle and estimated this fraction at less than half the value expected from detecting virus in body fluids, the standard proxy measure of infectiousness. This is because the infectious period is shorter (mean 1.7 days) than currently realised and animals are not infectious until, on average, 0.5 days after clinical signs appear. These results imply that controversial pre-emptive control measures may be unnecessary; instead, efforts should be directed at early detection of infection and rapid intervention.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          0404511
          7473
          Science
          Science
          Science (New York, N.Y.)
          0036-8075
          1095-9203
          28 February 2018
          06 May 2011
          09 March 2018
          : 332
          : 6030
          : 726-729
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Ash Rd, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK
          [2 ]Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, West Mains Rd, Edinburgh. EH9 3JT, UK
          Author notes
          [* ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. bryan.charleston@ 123456bbsrc.ac.uk
          Article
          PMC5844461 PMC5844461 5844461 ems76160
          10.1126/science.1199884
          5844461
          21551063
          8e0b7a13-d8ed-4313-84f1-6f6027f5a6de
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          Article

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