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      Effects of Water Hardness on Urinary Risk Factors for Kidney Stones in Patients with Idiopathic Nephrolithiasis

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          Abstract

          Both amount and timing of dietary calcium intake influence the recurrence of renal calcium stones. We have evaluated whether the hardness of extra meal drinking water modifies the risk for calcium stones. The urinary levels of calcium, oxalate and citrate, i.e., the main urinary risk factors for calcium stones, were measured in 18 patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis, maintained at fixed dietary intake of calcium (800 mg/day), after drinking for 1 week 2 liters per day, between meals, of tap water and at the end of 1 week of the same amount of bottled hard (Ca<sup>2+</sup> 255 mg/l) or soft (Ca<sup>2+</sup> 22 mg/l, Fiuggi water) water, in a double-blind randomized, crossover fashion. As compared with both tap and soft water, hard water was associated with a significant 50% increase of the urinary calcium concentration in the absence of changes of oxalate excretion; the calcium-citrate index revealed a significant threefold increase during ingestion of hard water as compared with respect to soft water (Fiuggi water), making the latter preferable even when compared with tap water. This study suggests that, in the preventive approach to calcium nephrolithiasis, the extra meal intake of soft water is preferable to hard water, since it is associated with a lower risk for recurrence of calcium stones.

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          Most cited references 1

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          Composition of the diet and calcium kidney stones.

           J Lemann (1993)
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            978-3-8055-6818-0
            978-3-318-00390-1
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            1999
            December 1998
            24 December 1998
            : 81
            : Suppl 1
            : 66-70
            Affiliations
            aDivision of Nephrology, School of Medicine, University Federico II, and bDivision of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy
            Article
            46301 Nephron 1999;81(suppl 1):66–70
            10.1159/000046301
            9873217
            © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Tables: 3, References: 19, Pages: 5
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46301
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