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      Classical conditioning drives learned reward prediction signals in climbing fibers across the lateral cerebellum

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          Abstract

          Classical models of cerebellar learning posit that climbing fibers operate according to a supervised learning rule to instruct changes in motor output by signaling the occurrence of movement errors. However, cerebellar output is also associated with non-motor behaviors, and recently with modulating reward association pathways in the VTA. To test how the cerebellum processes reward related signals in the same type of classical conditioning behavior typically studied to evaluate reward processing in the VTA and striatum, we have used calcium imaging to visualize instructional signals carried by climbing fibers across the lateral cerebellum in mice before and after learning. We find distinct climbing fiber responses in three lateral cerebellar regions that can each signal reward prediction. These instructional signals are well suited to guide cerebellar learning based on reward expectation and enable a cerebellar contribution to reward driven behaviors, suggesting a broad role for the lateral cerebellum in reward-based learning.

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          Most cited references 34

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          A theory of cerebellar cortex.

           D. W. M. Marr (1969)
          1. A detailed theory of cerebellar cortex is proposed whose consequence is that the cerebellum learns to perform motor skills. Two forms of input-output relation are described, both consistent with the cortical theory. One is suitable for learning movements (actions), and the other for learning to maintain posture and balance (maintenance reflexes).2. It is known that the cells of the inferior olive and the cerebellar Purkinje cells have a special one-to-one relationship induced by the climbing fibre input. For learning actions, it is assumed that:(a) each olivary cell responds to a cerebral instruction for an elemental movement. Any action has a defining representation in terms of elemental movements, and this representation has a neural expression as a sequence of firing patterns in the inferior olive; and(b) in the correct state of the nervous system, a Purkinje cell can initiate the elemental movement to which its corresponding olivary cell responds.3. Whenever an olivary cell fires, it sends an impulse (via the climbing fibre input) to its corresponding Purkinje cell. This Purkinje cell is also exposed (via the mossy fibre input) to information about the context in which its olivary cell fired; and it is shown how, during rehearsal of an action, each Purkinje cell can learn to recognize such contexts. Later, when the action has been learnt, occurrence of the context alone is enough to fire the Purkinje cell, which then causes the next elemental movement. The action thus progresses as it did during rehearsal.4. It is shown that an interpretation of cerebellar cortex as a structure which allows each Purkinje cell to learn a number of contexts is consistent both with the distributions of the various types of cell, and with their known excitatory or inhibitory natures. It is demonstrated that the mossy fibre-granule cell arrangement provides the required pattern discrimination capability.5. The following predictions are made.(a) The synapses from parallel fibres to Purkinje cells are facilitated by the conjunction of presynaptic and climbing fibre (or post-synaptic) activity.(b) No other cerebellar synapses are modifiable.(c) Golgi cells are driven by the greater of the inputs from their upper and lower dendritic fields.6. For learning maintenance reflexes, 2(a) and 2(b) are replaced by2'. Each olivary cell is stimulated by one or more receptors, all of whose activities are usually reduced by the results of stimulating the corresponding Purkinje cell.7. It is shown that if (2') is satisfied, the circuit receptor --> olivary cell --> Purkinje cell --> effector may be regarded as a stabilizing reflex circuit which is activated by learned mossy fibre inputs. This type of reflex has been called a learned conditional reflex, and it is shown how such reflexes can solve problems of maintaining posture and balance.8. 5(a), and either (2) or (2') are essential to the theory: 5(b) and 5(c) are not absolutely essential, and parts of the theory could survive the disproof of either.
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            A theory of cerebellar function

             James S Albus (1971)
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              The cerebellum, sensitive periods, and autism.

              Cerebellar research has focused principally on adult motor function. However, the cerebellum also maintains abundant connections with nonmotor brain regions throughout postnatal life. Here we review evidence that the cerebellum may guide the maturation of remote nonmotor neural circuitry and influence cognitive development, with a focus on its relationship with autism. Specific cerebellar zones influence neocortical substrates for social interaction, and we propose that sensitive-period disruption of such internal brain communication can account for autism's key features.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Senior Editor
                Role: Reviewing Editor
                Journal
                eLife
                Elife
                eLife
                eLife
                eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd
                2050-084X
                11 September 2019
                2019
                : 8
                Affiliations
                deptDepartment of Neurobiology Duke University School of Medicine DurhamUnited States
                Emory University United States
                Stanford School of Medicine United States
                Stanford School of Medicine United States
                CNRS France
                Albert Einstein College of Medicine United States
                Article
                46764
                10.7554/eLife.46764
                6845228
                31509108
                © 2019, Heffley and Hull

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000065, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke;
                Award ID: 5R01NS096289
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000065, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke;
                Award ID: F31NS103425
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000879, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation;
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100001391, Whitehall Foundation;
                Award Recipient :
                The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Neuroscience
                Custom metadata
                Cerebellar climbing fibers can generate learned reward-predictive instructional signals, suggesting a role for cerebellar learning in the reinforcement of reward-driven behaviors.

                Life sciences

                cerebellum, reinforcement learning, climbing fiber, mouse

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