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      Regulation of TLR2 and NLRP3 in Primary Murine Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

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          Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are now recognized to be key triggers of injury in a variety of renal diseases. Several families of these receptors are present in the kidney, and recent data suggest that they are differentially expressed and regulated in the kidney. This study evaluated the interaction between two distinct PRRs that are expressed in the kidney, i.e. TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2) and the NLRP3 inflammasome. The regulation and activation of these receptors in primary renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells from murine kidneys were evaluated. RTE cells were extracted from WT and NLRP3-mutant mice and treated ex vivo with ligands specific for TLR2 or NLRP3. We found that TLR2 upregulated NLRP3 as well as its substrate IL-1β, and that signaling through the NLRP3 inflammasome induced RTE cell necrosis. The results of this study suggest a previously unknown interaction between TLR2 and NLRP3 in primary RTE cells and highlight the importance of the cross talk that occurs in kidney-related PRRs. Understanding how PRRs are regulated is important for the design of rationale therapeutic strategies to modulate these receptors in renal disease.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Necrotic cells trigger a sterile inflammatory response through the Nlrp3 inflammasome.

          Dying cells are capable of activating the innate immune system and inducing a sterile inflammatory response. Here, we show that necrotic cells are sensed by the Nlrp3 inflammasome resulting in the subsequent release of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. Necrotic cells produced by pressure disruption, hypoxic injury, or complement-mediated damage were capable of activating the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Nlrp3 inflammasome activation was triggered in part through ATP produced by mitochondria released from damaged cells. Neutrophilic influx into the peritoneum in response to necrotic cells in vivo was also markedly diminished in the absence of Nlrp3. Nlrp3-deficiency moreover protected animals against mortality, renal dysfunction, and neutrophil influx in an in vivo renal ischemic acute tubular necrosis model. These findings suggest that the inhibition of Nlrp3 inflammasome activity can diminish the acute inflammation and damage associated with tissue injury.
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            An inflammasome-independent role for epithelial-expressed Nlrp3 in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

            Cytoplasmic innate immune receptors are important therapeutic targets for diseases associated with overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines. One cytoplasmic receptor complex, the Nlrp3 inflammasome, responds to an extensive array of molecules associated with cellular stress. Under normal conditions, Nlrp3 is autorepressed, but in the presence of its ligands, it oligomerizes, recruits apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (Asc), and triggers caspase 1 activation and the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. Because ischemic tissue injury provides a potential source for Nlrp3 ligands, our study compared and contrasted the effects of renal ischemia in wild-type mice and mice deficient in components of the Nlrp3 inflammasome (Nlrp3(-/-) and Asc(-/-) mice). To examine the role of the inflammasome in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) we also tested its downstream targets caspase 1, IL-1β, and IL-18. Both Nlrp3 and Asc were highly expressed in renal tubular epithelium of humans and mice, and the absence of Nlrp3, but not Asc or the downstream inflammasome targets, dramatically protected from kidney IRI. We conclude that Nlrp3 contributes to renal IRI by a direct effect on renal tubular epithelium and that this effect is independent of inflammasome-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.
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              IRAK-1 bypasses priming and directly links TLRs to rapid NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

              Pathogenic infections and tissue injuries trigger the assembly of inflammasomes, cytosolic protein complexes that activate caspase-1, leading to cleavage of pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 and to pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death program. Although microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is known to induce the synthesis of the major caspase-1 substrate pro-IL-1β, the role of TLRs has been considered limited to up-regulation of the inflammasome components. During infection with a virulent microbe, TLRs and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) are likely activated simultaneously. To examine the requirements and outcomes of combined activation, we stimulated TLRs and a specific NLR, nucleotide binding and oligomerization, leucine-rich repeat, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), simultaneously and discovered that such activation triggers rapid caspase-1 cleavage, leading to secretion of presynthesized inflammatory molecules and pyroptosis. This acute caspase-1 activation is independent of new protein synthesis and depends on the TLR-signaling molecule IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK-1) and its kinase activity. Importantly, Listeria monocytogenes induces NLRP3-dependent rapid caspase-1 activation and pyroptosis, both of which are compromised in IRAK-1-deficient macrophages. Our results reveal that simultaneous sensing of microbial ligands and virulence factors by TLRs and NLRP3, respectively, leads to a rapid TLR- and IRAK-1-dependent assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome complex, and that such activation is important for release of alarmins, pyroptosis, and early IFN-γ production by memory CD8 T cells, all of which could be critical for early host defense.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                September 2014
                24 September 2014
                : 127
                : 1-4
                : 119-123
                Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, Calif., USA
                Author notes
                *Dr. Dianne McKay, Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, CA 92093 (USA), E-Mail d1mckay@ucsd.edu
                363208 PMC4896108 Nephron Clin Pract 2014;127:119-123
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Pages: 5
                Original Paper


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