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      Low-temperature copper-induced lateral growth of polycrystalline germanium assisted by external compressive stress

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      Journal of Applied Physics

      AIP Publishing

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          Most cited references 19

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          Survey of Semiconductor Physics

           Karl W. Böer (1990)
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            Low temperature poly-Si thin-film transistor fabrication by metal-induced lateral crystallization

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              Imaging individual atoms inside crystals with ADF-STEM.

              The quantitative imaging of individual impurity atoms in annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) requires a clear theoretical understanding of ADF-STEM lattice imaging, nearly ideal thin samples, and careful attention to image processing. We explore the theory using plane-wave multislice simulations that show the image intensity of substitutional impurities is depth-dependent due to probe channeling, but the intensity of interstitial impurities need not be. The images are only directly interpretable in thin samples. For this reason, we describe a wedge mechanical polishing technique to produce samples less than <50 A thick, with low surface roughness and no amorphous surface oxide. This allows us to image individual dopants as they exist within a bulk-like silicon environment. We also discuss the image analysis techniques used to extract maximum quantitative information from the images. Based on this information, we conclude that the primary nanocluster defect responsible for the electrical inactivity of Sb in Si at high concentration consists of only two atoms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Applied Physics
                Journal of Applied Physics
                AIP Publishing
                0021-8979
                1089-7550
                February 15 2005
                February 15 2005
                : 97
                : 4
                : 044901
                Article
                10.1063/1.1836012
                © 2005
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