A comparison was made with the data of 62 cases of pituitary adenoma, evaluated pre- and postoperatively, including as well the results of immunohistochemical hormone examination (also for calcitonin). Prolactin was found in 18 of the 21 adenomas carrying the preoperative diagnosis of prolactinoma, whereas cells containing other hormones (growth hormone, LH, FSH, TSH, ACTH, β-endorphin), were only occasionally present. The growth hormone was strongly positive in the adenoma tissue in 16 of the 17 cases of acromegaly. 5 of these adenomas were accompanied by a marked hyperprolactinemia and also contained many prolactin cells. 6 of the 19 adenomas diagnosed as being ‘inactive’ contained hormone-positive cells, but only a very small number of cells. ACTH was found in 3 of the 4 pituitary adenomas of patients with Cushing’s disease. 2 of these were also positive for β-endorphin. The tissue of 1 gonadotrophic adenoma (with elevated FSH in serum) gave positive results with an anti-LH antiserum. Calcitonin was not found in any adenoma. The preoperative serum prolactin levels did not quantitatively correlate with the percentage of prolactin-positive cells.