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      Nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolomic differentiation of different Astragali Radix

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          Astragali Radix (AR) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Wild AR is believed to be of high quality, and substitution with cultivated AR is frequently encountered in the market. In the present study, two types of ARs (wild and cultivated) from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, growing in different regions of China, were analyzed by NMR profiling coupled with multivariate analysis. Results showed that both could be differentiated successfully and cultivation patterns or growing years might have greater impact on the metabolite compositions than the variety; the metabolites responsible for the separation were identified. In addition, three extraction methods were compared and the method (M1) was used for further analysis. In M1, the extraction solvent composed of water, methanol, and chloroform in the ratio of 1 : 1 : 2 was used to obtain the aqueous methanol (upper layer) and chloroform (lower layer) fractions, respectively, showing the best separation. The differential metabolites among different methods were also revealed. Moreover, the sucrose/glucose ratio could be used as a simple index to differentiate wild and cultivated AR. Meanwhile, the changes of correlation pattern among the differential metabolites of the two varieties were found. The work demonstrated that NMR-based non-targeted profiling approach, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, can be used as a powerful tool for differentiating AR of different cultivation types or growing years.

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          OPLS discriminant analysis: combining the strengths of PLS-DA and SIMCA classification

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            Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology.

            Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the results the novel NADES may be expected as potential green solvents at room temperature in diverse fields of chemistry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Are natural deep eutectic solvents the missing link in understanding cellular metabolism and physiology?


                Author and article information

                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                20 May 2017
                : 15
                : 5
                : 363-374
                1Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Shanxi 030006, China
                2College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Shanxi 030006, China
                3School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi 030006, China
                4Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: QIN Xue-Mei, Tel (Fax): 86-351-7011501, E-mail: qinxm@ ; LI Zhen-Yu, Tel (Fax): 86-351-7018379; E-mail: lizhenyu@

                ΔThese authors contributed to this work equally.

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funded by: Ministry of Agriculture for providing New Application for Herbal Research Grant Scheme (NRGS)
                Award ID: NH1014D040
                Funded by: National 12th 5-Year Science and Technology Support Program
                Award ID: 2011BA107B01
                Funded by: Science and Technology Innovation Team of Shanxi Province
                Award ID: 2013131015
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 31570346
                This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture for providing New Application for Herbal Research Grant Scheme (NRGS) (No. NH1014D040), the National 12th 5-Year Science and Technology Support Program (No. 2011BA107B01), the Science and Technology Innovation Team of Shanxi Province (No. 2013131015), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31570346).


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