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      Imaging, Behavior and Endocrine Analysis of “Jealousy” in a Monogamous Primate

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="P1">Understanding the neurobiology of social bonding in non-human primates is a critical step in understanding the evolution of monogamy, as well as understanding the neural substrates for emotion and behavior. Coppery titi monkeys ( <i>Callicebus cupreus</i>) form strong pair bonds, characterized by selective preference for their pair mate, mate-guarding, physiological and behavioral agitation upon separation, and social buffering. Mate-guarding, or the “maintenance” phase of pair bonding, is relatively under-studied in primates. In the current study, we used functional imaging to examine how male titi monkeys viewing their pair mate in close proximity to a stranger male would change regional cerebral glucose metabolism. We predicted that this situation would challenge the pair bond and induce “jealousy” in the males. Animals were injected with [ <sup>18</sup>F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), returned to their cage for 30 min of conscious uptake, placed under anesthesia, and then scanned for 1 hour on a microPET P4 scanner. During the FDG uptake, males (n=8) had a view of either their female pair mate next to a stranger male (“jealousy” condition) or a stranger female next to a stranger male (control condition). Blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and assayed for testosterone, cortisol, oxytocin, and vasopressin. Positron emission tomography (PET) was co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and region of interest analysis was carried out. Bayesian multivariate multilevel analyses found that the right lateral septum (Pr( <i>b</i>&gt;0)=93%), left posterior cingulate cortex (Pr( <i>b</i>&gt;0)=99%), and left anterior cingulate (Pr( <i>b</i>&gt;0)=96%) showed higher FDG uptake in the jealousy condition compared to the control condition, while the right medial amygdala (Pr( <i>b</i>&gt;0)=85%) showed lower FDG uptake. Plasma testosterone and cortisol concentrations were higher during the jealousy condition. During the jealousy condition, duration of time spent looking across at the pair mate next to a stranger male was associated with higher plasma cortisol concentrations. The lateral septum has been shown to be involved in mate-guarding and mating-induced aggression in monogamous rodents, while the cingulate cortex has been linked to territoriality. These neural and physiological changes may underpin the emotion of jealousy, which can act in a monogamous species to preserve the long-term integrity of the pair. </p>

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          Monogamy in Mammals

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            Is Open Access

            A weakly informative default prior distribution for logistic and other regression models

            We propose a new prior distribution for classical (nonhierarchical) logistic regression models, constructed by first scaling all nonbinary variables to have mean 0 and standard deviation 0.5, and then placing independent Student-\(t\) prior distributions on the coefficients. As a default choice, we recommend the Cauchy distribution with center 0 and scale 2.5, which in the simplest setting is a longer-tailed version of the distribution attained by assuming one-half additional success and one-half additional failure in a logistic regression. Cross-validation on a corpus of datasets shows the Cauchy class of prior distributions to outperform existing implementations of Gaussian and Laplace priors. We recommend this prior distribution as a default choice for routine applied use. It has the advantage of always giving answers, even when there is complete separation in logistic regression (a common problem, even when the sample size is large and the number of predictors is small), and also automatically applying more shrinkage to higher-order interactions. This can be useful in routine data analysis as well as in automated procedures such as chained equations for missing-data imputation. We implement a procedure to fit generalized linear models in R with the Student-\(t\) prior distribution by incorporating an approximate EM algorithm into the usual iteratively weighted least squares. We illustrate with several applications, including a series of logistic regressions predicting voting preferences, a small bioassay experiment, and an imputation model for a public health data set.
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              Nucleus accumbens dopamine differentially mediates the formation and maintenance of monogamous pair bonds.

              The involvement of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens in the formation and maintenance of pair bonds was assessed in a series of experiments using the monogamous prairie vole. We show that dopamine transmission that promotes pair bond formation occurs within the rostral shell of the nucleus accumbens, but not in its core or caudal shell. Within this specific brain region, D1- and D2-like receptor activation produced opposite effects: D1-like activation prevented pair bond formation, whereas D2-like activation facilitated it. After extended cohabitation with a female, male voles showed behavior indicative of pair bond maintenance-namely, selective aggression towards unfamiliar females. These voles also showed a significant upregulation in nucleus accumbens D1-like receptors, and blockade of these receptors abolished selective aggression. Thus, neuroplastic reorganization of the nucleus accumbens dopamine system is responsible for the enduring nature of monogamous pair bonding. Finally, we show that this system may also contribute to species-specific social organization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
                Front. Ecol. Evol.
                Frontiers Media SA
                2296-701X
                October 19 2017
                October 19 2017
                : 5
                :
                Article
                10.3389/fevo.2017.00119
                5909987
                29682503
                © 2017

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