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      Variations in osteoporosis medication utilization. A population-based ecological cross-sectional study in the region of Valencia, Spain

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          Little is known about the contextual variability in osteoporosis medication utilization. Our aims were 1) to describe variations in utilization and spending on osteoporotic medication between the Primary Care Health Zones (PHZ) of the Valencia region, Spain, 2) to analyze observed variations using Small Area Variation Analysis methods, and 3) to quantify the influence of the specialized care level on variations in utilization. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional ecological study of expenditure and utilization of five therapeutic groups marketed as osteoporosis treatments in Spain in 2009. The unit of analysis was the PHZ (in total 240) nested in the 23 Hospital Healthcare Departments (HHD) of the region of Valencia, covering a population of about 4.9 million inhabitants. Drug utilization was measured by dispensed Defined Daily Dose per 1000 women aged 50 years old and over and day (DID) per PHZ and cost was measured by the annual osteoporosis drug cost per woman aged 50 and older as well as the average price of DDD (Defined Daily Dose) in each PHZ. We calculated Indirect Standardized Drug Utilization Ratios (ISR) and we used Spearman’s correlation to analyze associations between the ISRs of the different therapies. The average osteoporosis drug consumption was 119.1 DID, ranging from 77.6 to 171.3 DID (2.2 times higher) between PHZs in the 5th and 95th percentiles. Annual expenditure also showed a two-fold variation among PHZs. Average prices of the DDD by therapeutic group showed very low or no variation, although they differed substantially among therapeutic groups. Regarding the standardized consumption of osteoporotic drugs, HHDs explained a substantial part (39%) of the variance among PHZs. In conclusion, there is considerable variability in the volume and choice of anti-osteoporotic treatments between PHZs. with HHDs explaining an important proportion of the variation in utilization. Interventions aimed at reducing variation to improve appropriate care should take into account both the PHZ and HHD levels of care.

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          Most cited references 27

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          An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures.

           O. Johnell,  J Kanis (2006)
          The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of osteoporotic fracture worldwide. The incidence of hip fractures was identified by systematic review and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was imputed from the incidence of hip fractures in different regions of the world. Excess mortality and disability weights used age- and sex-specific data from Sweden to calculate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to osteoporotic fracture. In the year 2000 there were an estimated 9.0 million osteoporotic fractures of which 1.6 million were at the hip, 1.7 million at the forearm and 1.4 million were clinical vertebral fractures. The greatest number of osteoporotic fractures occurred in Europe (34.8%). The total DALYs lost was 5.8 million of which 51% were accounted for by fractures that occurred in Europe and the Americas. World-wide, osteoporotic fractures accounted for 0.83% of the global burden of non-communicable disease and was 1.75% of the global burden in Europe. In Europe, osteoporotic fractures accounted for more DALYs lost than common cancers with the exception of lung cancer. For chronic musculo-skeletal disorders the DALYs lost in Europe due to osteoporosis (2.0 million) were less than for osteoarthrosis (3.1 million) but greater than for rheumatoid arthritis (1.0 million). We conclude that osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developed countries.
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            Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden

            Summary This report describes the epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). Introduction Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass and disruption of bone architecture, resulting in increased risk of fragility fractures which represent the main clinical consequence of the disease. Fragility fractures are associated with substantial pain and suffering, disability and even death for affected patients and substantial costs to society. The aim of this report was to characterize the burden of osteoporosis in the EU27 in 2010 and beyond. Methods The literature on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 was reviewed and incorporated into a model estimating the clinical and economic burden of osteoporotic fractures in 2010. Results Twenty-two million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were sustained, comprising 610,000 hip fractures, 520,000 vertebral fractures, 560,000 forearm fractures and 1,800,000 other fractures (i.e. fractures of the pelvis, rib, humerus, tibia, fibula, clavicle, scapula, sternum and other femoral fractures). The economic burden of incident and prior fragility fractures was estimated at € 37 billion. Incident fractures represented 66 % of this cost, long-term fracture care 29 % and pharmacological prevention 5 %. Previous and incident fractures also accounted for 1,180,000 quality-adjusted life years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. Conclusions In spite of the high social and economic cost of osteoporosis, a substantial treatment gap and projected increase of the economic burden driven by the aging populations, the use of pharmacological interventions to prevent fractures has decreased in recent years, suggesting that a change in healthcare policy is warranted.
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              A systematic review of hip fracture incidence and probability of fracture worldwide

              Summary The country-specific risk of hip fracture and the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture were determined on a worldwide basis from a systematic review of literature. There was a greater than 10-fold variation in hip fracture risk and fracture probability between countries. Introduction The present study aimed to update the available information base available on the heterogeneity in the risk of hip fracture on a worldwide basis. An additional aim was to document variations in major fracture probability as determined from the available FRAX models. Methods Studies on hip fracture risk were identified from 1950 to November 2011 by a Medline OVID search. Evaluable studies in each country were reviewed for quality and representativeness and a study (studies) chosen to represent that country. Age-specific incidence rates were age-standardised to the world population in 2010 in men, women and both sexes combined. The 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture for a specific clinical scenario was computed in those countries for which a FRAX model was available. Results Following quality evaluation, age-standardised rates of hip fracture were available for 63 countries and 45 FRAX models available in 40 countries to determine fracture probability. There was a greater than 10-fold variation in hip fracture risk and fracture probability between countries. Conclusions Worldwide, there are marked variations in hip fracture rates and in the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures. The variation is sufficiently large that these cannot be explained by the often multiple sources of error in the ascertainment of cases or the catchment population. Understanding the reasons for this heterogeneity may lead to global strategies for the prevention of fractures.

                Author and article information

                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Validation
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Validation
                Role: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                21 June 2018
                : 13
                : 6
                [1 ] Center for Public Health Research (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia, Spain
                [2 ] Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC), Valencia, Spain
                [3 ] Navarrabiomed, Navarra Biomedical Centre, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
                UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NORWAY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                © 2018 Sanfélix-Gimeno et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Pages: 12
                Funded by: Department of Health of the Autonomous Government of Valencia
                Award ID: 047/2010
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id, Instituto de Salud Carlos III;
                Award ID: PI09/90882
                Funded by: funder-id, Instituto de Salud Carlos III;
                Award ID: PI13/01721
                This project was partially funded by the Department of Health of the Autonomous Government of Valencia (Project 047/2010, and the Instituto de Salud Carlos III from the Spanish Ministry of Health (Project PI09/90882 and PI13/01721, The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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