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      Vitamin A status of 20- to 59-year-old adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area, Korea


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          Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were estimated in assessing the vitamin A status of Korean adults living in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were collected from 106 healthy subjects (33 males and 73 females) aged 20-59 years. Fasting blood samples of the subjects were obtained and plasma retinol and carotenoids were analyzed. The daily vitamin A intakes (mean ± SD) were 887.77 ± 401.35 µg retinol equivalents or 531.84 ± 226.42 µg retinol activity equivalents. There were no significant differences in vitamin A intakes among age groups. The retinol intake of subjects was 175.92 ± 129.87 µg/day. The retinol intake of the subjects in their 50's was significantly lower than those in their 20's and 30's ( P < 0.05). Provitamin A carotenoid intakes were 3,828.37 ± 2,196.29 µg/day β-carotene, 472.57 ± 316.68 µg/day α-carotene, and 412.83 ± 306.46 µg/day β-cryptoxanthin. Approximately 17% of the subjects consumed vitamin A less than the Korean Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A. The plasma retinol concentration was 1.22 ± 0.34 µmol/L. There was no significant difference in plasma retinol concentrations among age groups. However, the concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein of subjects in their 50's were significantly higher than those of in their 20's. Only one subject had a plasma retinol concentration < 0.70 µmol/L indicating marginal vitamin A status. Plasma retinol concentration in 30% of the subjects was 0.70- < 1.05 µmol/L, which is interpreted as the concentration possibly responsive to greater intake of vitamin A. In conclusion, dietary intakes and status of vitamin A were generally adequate in Korean adults examined in this study.

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          Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

          Epidemiologic studies report inconsistent findings on the association of fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective was to examine the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied 9608 adults aged 25-74 y participating in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study and free of cardiovascular disease at the time of their baseline examination between 1971 and 1975. Fruit and vegetable intake at baseline was measured with a food-frequency questionnaire. The incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease were obtained from medical records and death certificates. Over an average of 19 y, 888 strokes (218 fatal), 1786 ischemic heart disease events (639 fatal), 1145 cardiovascular disease deaths, and 2530 all-cause deaths were documented. Consuming fruit and vegetables > or = 3 times/d compared with <1 time/d was associated with a 27% lower stroke incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.95; P for trend = 0.01), a 42% lower stroke mortality (0.58; 0.33, 1.02; P for trend = 0.05), a 24% lower ischemic heart disease mortality (0.76; 0.56, 1.03; P for trend = 0.07), a 27% lower cardiovascular disease mortality (0.73; 0.58, 0.92; P for trend = 0.008), and a 15% lower all-cause mortality (0.85; 0.72, 1.00; P for trend = 0.02) after adjustment for established cardiovascular disease risk factors. We showed an inverse association of fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the general US population.
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            Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans

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              Fundamentals of Biostatistics


                Author and article information

                Nutr Res Pract
                Nutrition Research and Practice
                The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition
                February 2012
                29 February 2012
                : 6
                : 1
                : 45-50
                Department of Food & Nutrition, Duksung Women's University, 419 Ssangmun-dong, Seoul 132-714, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Youn-Ok Cho, Tel. 82-2-901-8376, Fax. 82-2-901-8372, yunokcho@ 123456duksung.ac.kr
                ©2012 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 25 November 2011
                : 13 January 2012
                : 19 January 2012
                Original Research

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                retinol,carotenoids,vitamin a status,provitamin a carotenoids
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                retinol, carotenoids, vitamin a status, provitamin a carotenoids


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