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Molekulare Erkennung in chemischen und biologischen Systemen

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Angewandte Chemie

Wiley

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      Fluorine in pharmaceuticals: looking beyond intuition.

      Fluorine substituents have become a widespread and important drug component, their introduction facilitated by the development of safe and selective fluorinating agents. Organofluorine affects nearly all physical and adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties of a lead compound. Its inductive effects are relatively well understood, enhancing bioavailability, for example, by reducing the basicity of neighboring amines. In contrast, exploration of the specific influence of carbon-fluorine single bonds on docking interactions, whether through direct contact with the protein or through stereoelectronic effects on molecular conformation of the drug, has only recently begun. Here, we review experimental progress in this vein and add complementary analysis based on comprehensive searches in the Cambridge Structural Database and the Protein Data Bank.
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        Relationship between the inhibition constant (KI) and the concentration of inhibitor which causes 50 per cent inhibition (I50) of an enzymatic reaction

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          The role of DNA methylation in mammalian epigenetics.

          Genes constitute only a small proportion of the total mammalian genome, and the precise control of their expression in the presence of an overwhelming background of noncoding DNA presents a substantial problem for their regulation. Noncoding DNA, containing introns, repetitive elements, and potentially active transposable elements, requires effective mechanisms for its long-term silencing. Mammals appear to have taken advantage of the possibilities afforded by cytosine methylation to provide a heritable mechanism for altering DNA-protein interactions to assist in such silencing. Genes can be transcribed from methylation-free promoters even though adjacent transcribed and nontranscribed regions are extensively methylated. Gene promoters can be used and regulated while keeping noncoding DNA, including transposable elements, suppressed. Methylation is also used for long-term epigenetic silencing of X-linked and imprinted genes and can either increase or decrease the level of transcription, depending on whether the methylation inactivates a positive or negative regulatory element.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Angewandte Chemie
            Angew. Chem.
            Wiley
            00448249
            March 09 2015
            March 09 2015
            February 12 2015
            : 127
            : 11
            : 3341-3382
            10.1002/ange.201408487
            © 2015

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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