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      Effects of Diabetes and Estradiol on Norepinephrine Release in Female Rat Hypothalamus, Preoptic Area and Cortex

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          These studies determined whether diabetes and estradiol treatment altered norepinephrine (NE) release from hypothalamus, preoptic area (POA), and cortical slices from ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after the onset of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and 48 h following vehicle or estradiol injection. Brain slices were preloaded with <sup>3</sup>H-NE, and release was evoked twice (S1 and S2) by electrical stimulation. Diabetes increased hypothalamic NE release during S1 regardless of the administration of vehicle or estradiol. Neither estradiol treatment nor diabetes alone affected NE release during S2 in the hypothalamus or POA. Estradiol treatment elevated NE release in the POA during S2 but only in diabetic animals. Moreover, estradiol elevated cortical NE release during S2 regardless of the presence or absence of disease. We also examined whether α<sub>2</sub>-adrenoceptor regulation of NE release was influenced by diabetes or hormone treatment. Enhancement of NE release by α<sub>2</sub>-adrenoceptor antagonism was evident in all 3 brain regions. However, α<sub>2</sub>-adrenoceptor regulation of NE release was unaffected by diabetes and hormone treatment. These findings suggest that diabetes alters NE release in the hypothalamus/POA of female rats. Additionally, this work identifies a novel action of estradiol to enhance stimulated NE release in the cortex of female rats.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Insulin reduces norepinephrine transporter mRNA in vivo in rat locus coeruleus.

          Acute and chronic in vitro insulin treatment can inhibit the uptake of norepinephrine (NE) by adult rat brain synaptosomes and slices, fetal neuronal cultures, and PC12 cells. In the present study we tested whether chronic in vivo insulin treatment could alter the biosynthetic capacity of rat locus coeruleus neurons for the NE transporter protein (NET). Chronic third ventricular insulin treatment resulted in a suppression of NET mRNA to about one third of the level of vehicle-treated controls. Our finding suggests that insulin may play a regulatory role in the synthesis of this transporter, thereby modulating activity in CNS noradrenergic pathways.
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            New evidence for a gating action of norepinephrine in central neuronal circuits of mammalian brain.

            Many previous studies have examined the effects of norepinephrine (NE) on neuronal responsiveness to synaptic inputs and putative transmitter substances and have described differential depressant actions of NE on stimulus evoked versus spontaneous discharge such that the "signal to noise" ratio of threshold responses was increased. In the present studies, similar experimental strategies employing a combination of microiontophoresis, single unit recording and afferent pathway stimulation in intact anesthetized and brain tissue slice preparations have revealed noradrenergic "gating" actions whereby weak or subthreshold synaptic stimuli can evoke threshold neuronal responses in the presence of iontophoretically applied NE or following electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus. Overall, these results suggest that potentially threshold excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs may normally arrive at central neurons but appear weak or absent except during behavioral conditions favoring the synaptic release of NE. As such, these findings provide evidence that signal to noise ratio may not be the only potential modulatory action expressed by NE in noradrenergic target circuits of the mammalian brain.
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              Insulin receptors and insulin action in dissociated brain cells.

              The present study was conducted to characterize insulin receptors and insulin action in rat brain cells. Binding of [125I]insulin to cells obtained by mechanically dissociating rat brains was 86% specific, time-dependent and reached equilibrium within 90 min. The t1/2 of association was 14 min and t1/2 of dissociation was 8 min. Scatchard analysis demonstrated the typical curvilinear plot providing high affinity (0.03 nM) and low affinity (6.6 nM) binding sites. The total number of binding sites were 0.15 pmol/mg protein. Crosslinking of [125I]insulin to its receptors on dissociated brain cells followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography showed that the alpha-subunit of the receptor had a molecular weight of 122,000. This was in contrast with a molecular weight of 134,000 for the liver alpha-subunit. Incubation of dissociated brain cells with insulin resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of total [3H]norepinephrine (NE) uptake. This inhibitory effect of insulin on [3H]NE uptake was sodium ion-dependent suggesting that 80-90% of the sodium ion-dependent uptake was insulin-sensitive. Incubation of lectin-purified insulin receptors with insulin resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent stimulation of phosphorylation of the tyrosine residue of an exogenous substrate poly (Glu, Tyr) (4:1). In addition, insulin also stimulated the autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptors. These observations corroborate our contention that insulin exerts neuromodulatory effects mediated by the specific insulin receptors in the brain.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                July 1998
                19 March 2008
                : 68
                : 1
                : 30-36
                Departments of a Neuroscience and b Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y., USA
                54347 Neuroendocrinology 1998;68:30–36
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Neuroendocrine Correlates of Food Intake and Diabetes


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