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      Epidemiology and pathophysiology of Takotsubo syndrome

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          Abstract

          Takotsubo syndrome is an acute cardiac syndrome first described in 1990 and characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction affecting more than one coronary artery territory, often in a circumferential apical, mid-ventricular, or basal distribution. Several pathophysiological explanations have been proposed for this syndrome and its intriguing appearance, and awareness is growing that these explanations might not be mutually exclusive. The reversible apical myocardial dysfunction observed might result from more than one pathophysiological phenomenon. The pathophysiology of Takotsubo syndrome is complex and integrates neuroendocrine physiology, potentially involving the cognitive centres of the brain, and including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Cardiovascular responses are caused by the sudden sympathetic activation and surge in concentrations of circulating catecholamines. The multiple morphological changes seen in the myocardium match those seen after catecholamine-induced cardiotoxicity. The acute prognosis and recurrence rate are now known to be worse than initially thought, and much still needs to be learned about the epidemiology and the underlying pathophysiology of this fascinating condition in order to improve diagnostic and treatment pathways.

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          Most cited references 108

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          Natural history and expansive clinical profile of stress (tako-tsubo) cardiomyopathy.

          This study was designed to define more completely the clinical spectrum and consequences of stress cardiomyopathy (SC) beyond the acute event. Stress cardiomyopathy is a recently recognized condition characterized by transient cardiac dysfunction with ventricular ballooning. Clinical profile and outcome were prospectively assessed in 136 consecutive SC patients. Patients were predominantly women (n = 130; 96%), but 6 were men (4%). Ages were 32 to 94 years (mean age 68 +/- 13 years); 13 (10%) were 2 months in 5%. Right and/or left ventricular thrombi were identified in 5 patients (predominantly by CMR imaging), including 2 with embolic events. Three patients (2%) died in-hospital and 116 (85%) have survived, including 5% with nonfatal recurrent SC events. All-cause mortality during follow-up exceeded a matched general population (p = 0.016) with most deaths occurring in the first year. In this large SC cohort, the clinical spectrum was heterogeneous with about one-third either male,
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            Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a new form of acute, reversible heart failure.

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              Acute and reversible cardiomyopathy provoked by stress in women from the United States.

              A clinical entity characterized by acute but rapidly reversible left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and triggered by psychological stress is emerging, with reports largely confined to Japan. Over a 32-month period, 22 consecutive patients with this novel cardiomyopathy were prospectively identified within a community-based practice in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn, area. All patients were women aged 32 to 89 years old (mean 65+/-13 years); 21 (96%) were > or =50 years of age. The syndrome is characterized by (1) acute substernal chest pain with ST-segment elevation and/or T-wave inversion; (2) absence of significant coronary arterial narrowing by angiography; (3) systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction 29+/-9%), with abnormal wall motion of the mid and distal LV, ie, "apical ballooning"; and (4) profound psychological stress (eg, death of relatives, domestic abuse, arguments, catastrophic medical diagnoses, devastating financial or gambling losses) immediately preceding and triggering the cardiac events. A significant proportion of patients (37%) had hemodynamic compromise and required vasopressor agents and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. Each patient survived with normalized ejection fraction (63+/-6%; P<0.001) and rapid restoration to previous functional cardiovascular status within 6+/-3 days. In 95%, MRI identified diffusely distributed segmental wall-motion abnormalities that encompassed LV myocardium in multiple coronary arterial vascular territories. A reversible cardiomyopathy triggered by psychologically stressful events occurs in older women and may mimic evolving acute myocardial infarction or coronary syndrome. This condition is characterized by a distinctive form of systolic dysfunction that predominantly affects the distal LV chamber and a favorable outcome with appropriate medical therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cardiology
                Nat Rev Cardiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-5002
                1759-5010
                July 2015
                April 7 2015
                July 2015
                : 12
                : 7
                : 387-397
                Article
                10.1038/nrcardio.2015.39
                25855605
                © 2015

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