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      Sharing more than friendship – transmission of NDM-5 ST167 and CTX-M-9 ST69 Escherichia coli between dogs and humans in a family, Finland, 2015

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          Introduction

          Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have rarely been reported in dogs, and never in animals in Finland. However, in April 2015, two meropenem-resistant Escherichia coli were identified from two dogs in one family. Both dogs suffered from chronic otitis externa. Methods: Epidemiological and molecular investigations (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing) were conducted to investigate the source of infection and transmission routes. Results: In both dogs and one family member New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-5)-producing multidrug-resistant ST167 E. coli was found. Whole genome sequencing confirmed that the isolates were identical or only had one or two allelic differences. Additionally, the dogs and humans of the family carried an identical extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M-group 9 E. coli ST69 strain, indicating interspecies transmission. While the original source remains unclear, human-to-canine transmission is possible. No carbapenems had been administered to the dogs, but exposure to numerous other antimicrobials likely sustained the bacteria and supported its propagation in the canine host. Conclusion: To our knowledge, canine clinical NDM-5 E. coli in Europe, and confirmed CPE transmission between dogs and humans have not been previously reported. The screening of veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates for carbapenem resistance is highly recommended.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study

          Summary Background Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with resistance to carbapenem conferred by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are potentially a major global health problem. We investigated the prevalence of NDM-1, in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in India, Pakistan, and the UK. Methods Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied from two major centres in India—Chennai (south India), Haryana (north India)—and those referred to the UK's national reference laboratory. Antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed, and the presence of the carbapenem resistance gene bla NDM-1 was established by PCR. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-restricted genomic DNA. Plasmids were analysed by S1 nuclease digestion and PCR typing. Case data for UK patients were reviewed for evidence of travel and recent admission to hospitals in India or Pakistan. Findings We identified 44 isolates with NDM-1 in Chennai, 26 in Haryana, 37 in the UK, and 73 in other sites in India and Pakistan. NDM-1 was mostly found among Escherichia coli (36) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (111), which were highly resistant to all antibiotics except to tigecycline and colistin. K pneumoniae isolates from Haryana were clonal but NDM-1 producers from the UK and Chennai were clonally diverse. Most isolates carried the NDM-1 gene on plasmids: those from UK and Chennai were readily transferable whereas those from Haryana were not conjugative. Many of the UK NDM-1 positive patients had travelled to India or Pakistan within the past year, or had links with these countries. Interpretation The potential of NDM-1 to be a worldwide public health problem is great, and co-ordinated international surveillance is needed. Funding European Union, Wellcome Trust, and Wyeth.
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            Detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase genes in clinical isolates by using multiplex PCR.

            Therapeutic options for infections caused by gram-negative organisms expressing plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases are limited because these organisms are usually resistant to all the beta-lactam antibiotics, except for cefepime, cefpirome, and the carbapenems. These organisms are a major concern in nosocomial infections and should therefore be monitored in surveillance studies. Six families of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases have been identified, but no phenotypic test can differentiate among them, a fact which creates problems for surveillance and epidemiology studies. This report describes the development of a multiplex PCR for the purpose of identifying family-specific AmpC beta-lactamase genes within gram-negative pathogens. The PCR uses six sets of ampC-specific primers resulting in amplicons that range from 190 bp to 520 bp and that are easily distinguished by gel electrophoresis. ampC multiplex PCR differentiated the six plasmid-mediated ampC-specific families in organisms such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Family-specific primers did not amplify genes from the other families of ampC genes. Furthermore, this PCR-based assay differentiated multiple genes within one reaction. In addition, WAVE technology, a high-pressure liquid chromatography-based separation system, was used as a way of decreasing analysis time and increasing the sensitivity of multiple-gene assays. In conclusion, a multiplex PCR technique was developed for identifying family-specific ampC genes responsible for AmpC beta-lactamase expression in organisms with or without a chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase gene.
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              Detection of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC  -Lactamase Genes in Clinical Isolates by Using Multiplex PCR

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Euro Surveill
                Euro Surveill
                ES
                Eurosurveillance
                European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
                1025-496X
                1560-7917
                05 July 2018
                : 23
                : 27
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
                [2 ]Sydspetsens miljöhälsa, Hangö, Finland
                [3 ]National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland
                [4 ]Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland
                Author notes

                Correspondence: Thomas Grönthal ( thomas.gronthal@ 123456helsinki.fi )

                Article
                1700497 1700497 1700497
                10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.27.1700497
                6152158
                29991384
                This article is copyright of The Authors, 2018.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) Licence. You may share and adapt the material, but must give appropriate credit to the source, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made.

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                Research Article

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