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The prevalence and risk factors of stroke in patients with chronic schizophrenia

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      Abstract

      ObjectiveTo investigate the stroke risk and risk factors in patients with chronic schizophrenia.Patients and methodsThis study was a large-sample, cross-sectional survey. A total of 363 patients with chronic schizophrenia were selected from the Changping Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Beijing, in August 2014. The patients were divided into either stroke group or control group based on the presence of stroke. Clinical evaluation included positive and negative syndrome scale assessment and a detailed questionnaire to collect the general information and disease-related conditions.ResultsThe prevalence of stroke was 16.5% (60 cases). Stroke and control groups showed a significant difference in age, sex, smoking, combined medication, doses, negative factor score in positive and negative syndrome scale, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis showed that a number of factors are significantly related to stroke, including age, sex, smoking, combined medication, doses, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure.ConclusionThe prevalence of stroke is relatively higher in Chinese patients with chronic schizophrenia. Chronic schizophrenia patients are more likely to suffer from stroke; meanwhile, a number of risk factors were identified, including old age, female sex, smoking history, combined medication with a variety of drugs, high doses, obesity, and high blood pressure.

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      Most cited references 17

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      Chlorpromazine equivalent doses for the newer atypical antipsychotics.

      Several clinical and research applications require an estimation of therapeutic dose equivalence across antipsychotic medications. Since the advent of the newer atypical antipsychotics, new dose equivalent estimations have been needed. The reported minimum effective dose was identified for each newer atypical antipsychotic medication and for haloperidol across all available fixed-dose placebo-controlled studies. Reported minimum effective dose equivalence ratios to haloperidol were then converted to chlorpromazine equivalents using the "2 mg of haloperidol equals 100 mg of chlorpromazine" convention. To identify the fixed-dose studies, the following sources were searched until June 2002: MEDLINE, the bibliographies of identified reports, published meta-analyses and reviews, Cochrane reviews, Freedom of Information Act material available from the Food and Drug Administration, and abstracts from several scientific meetings from 1997 to 2002. Doses equivalent to 100 mg/day of chlorpromazine were 2 mg/day for risperidone, 5 mg/day for olanzapine, 75 mg/day for quetiapine, 60 mg/day for ziprasidone, and 7.5 mg/day for aripiprazole. These equivalency estimates may be useful for clinical and research purposes. The source of the dose equivalency estimation is evidence-based and consistent across medication.
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        Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: baseline results from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial and comparison with national estimates from NHANES III.

        One important risk factor for cardiovascular disease is the metabolic syndrome (MS), yet limited data exist on its prevalence in US patients with schizophrenia. Using baseline data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial, assessment of MS prevalence was performed based on National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria, and also using a fasting glucose threshold of 100 mg/dl (AHA). Subjects with sufficient anthropometric data, data on use of antihypertensives, hypoglycemic medications or insulin, and fasting glucose and lipid values >8 h from last meal were included in the analysis. Comparative analyses were performed using a randomly selected sample from NHANES III matched 1:1 on the basis of age, gender and race/ethnicity. Of 1460 CATIE baseline subjects, 689 met analysis criteria. MS prevalence was 40.9% and 42.7%, respectively using the NCEP and AHA derived criteria. In females it was 51.6% and 54.2% using the NCEP and AHA criteria, compared to 36.0% (p = .0002) and 36.6% (p = .0003), respectively for males. 73.4% of all females (including nonfasting subjects) met the waist circumference criterion compared to 36.6% of males. In a logistic regression model with age, race and ethnicity as covariates, CATIE males were 138% more likely to have MS than the NHANES matched sample, and CATIE females 251% more likely than their NHANES counterparts. Even when controlling for differences in body mass index, CATIE males were still 85% more likely to have MS than the NHANES male sample, and CATIE females 137% more likely to have MS than females in NHANES. The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in US schizophrenia patients and represents an enormous source of cardiovascular risk, especially for women. Clinical attention must be given to monitoring for this syndrome, and minimizing metabolic risks associated with antipsychotic treatment.
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          Second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review.

          Increasing numbers of reports concerning diabetes, ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemia and lipid dysregulation in patients treated with second-generation (or atypical) antipsychotics have raised concerns about a possible association between these metabolic effects and treatment with these medications. This comprehensive literature review considers the evidence for and against an association between glucose or lipid dysregulation and eight separate second-generation antipsychotics currently available in the US and/or Europe, specifically clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, zotepine, amisulpride, ziprasidone and aripiprazole. This review also includes an assessment of the potential contributory role of treatment-induced weight gain in conferring risk for hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia during treatment with different antipsychotic medications. Substantial evidence from a variety of human populations, including some recent confirmatory evidence in treated psychiatric patients, indicates that increased adiposity is associated with a variety of adverse physiological effects, including decreases in insulin sensitivity and changes in plasma glucose and lipid levels. Comparison of mean weight changes and relative percentages of patients experiencing specific levels of weight increase from controlled, randomised clinical trials indicates that weight gain liability varies significantly across the different second generation antipsychotic agents. Clozapine and olanzapine treatment are associated with the greatest risk of clinically significant weight gain, with other agents producing relatively lower levels of risk. Risperidone, quetiapine, amisulpride and zotepine generally show low to moderate levels of mean weight gain and a modest risk of clinically significant increases in weight. Ziprasidone and aripiprazole treatment are generally associated with minimal mean weight gain and the lowest risk of more significant increases. Published studies including uncontrolled observations, large retrospective database analyses and controlled experimental studies, including randomised clinical trials, indicate that the different second-generation antipsychotics are associated with differing effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. These studies offer generally consistent evidence that clozapine and olanzapine treatment are associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. Inconsistent results, and a generally smaller effect in studies where an effect is reported, suggest limited if any increased risk for treatment-induced diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia during risperidone treatment, despite a comparable volume of published data. A similarly smaller and inconsistent signal suggests limited if any increased risk of diabetes or dyslipidaemia during quetiapine treatment, but this is based on less published data than is available for risperidone. The absence of retrospective database studies, and little or no relevant published data from clinical trials, makes it difficult to draw conclusions concerning risk for zotepine or amisulpride, although amisulpride appears to have less risk of treatment-emergent dyslipidaemia in comparison to olanzapine. With increasing data from clinical trials but little or no currently published data from large retrospective database analyses, there is no evidence at this time to suggest that ziprasidone and aripiprazole treatment are associated with an increase in risk for diabetes, dyslipidaemia or other adverse effects on glucose or lipid metabolism. In general, the rank order of risk observed for the second-generation antipsychotic medications suggests that the differing weight gain liability of atypical agents contributes to the differing relative risk of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. This would be consistent with effects observed in nonpsychiatric samples, where risk for adverse metabolic changes tends to increase with increasing adiposity. From this perspective, a possible increase in risk would be predicted to occur in association with any treatment that produces increases in weight and adiposity. However, case reports tentatively suggest that substantial weight gain or obesity may not be a factor in up to one-quarter of cases of new-onset diabetes that occur during treatment. Pending further testing from preclinical and clinical studies, limited controlled studies support the hypothesis that clozapine and olanzapine may have a direct effect on glucose regulation independent of adiposity. The results of studies in this area are relevant to primary and secondary prevention efforts that aim to address the multiple factors that contribute to increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in populations that are often treated with second-generation antipsychotic medications.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
            [2 ]Changping Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Ying Liang, National Clinical Reseach Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, Beijing, Haidian District, Huayuanbeilu 51, 100191, People’s Republic of China, Email liangying1980@ 123456bjmu.edu.cn
            Journal
            Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
            Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
            Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
            Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
            Dove Medical Press
            1176-6328
            1178-2021
            2016
            09 May 2016
            : 12
            : 1131-1134
            27274246
            4869779
            10.2147/NDT.S106663
            ndt-12-1131
            © 2016 Liang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

            The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

            Categories
            Original Research

            Neurology

            stroke, schizophrenia, risk, risk factors

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