Three strains of a hitherto unknown, Gram-negative, anaerobic coccus were isolated from human samples. At the phenotypic level, the isolates displayed all the characteristics of bacteria belonging to the genus Veillonella. Sequence analysis revealed that the three strains shared >99.5% similarity in 16S rDNA sequence and >98.4% similarity in dnaK sequence. The three unknown strains formed a separate subclade that was clearly remote from Veillonella species of human and animal origin. Based on these results, the three strains were considered to represent a novel species within the genus Veillonella, for which the name Veillonella montpellierensis is proposed. The type strain of the species is ADV 281.99T (=CIP 107992T=CCUG 48299T).