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      Enquête entomologique dans le foyer historique de trypanosomose humaine africaine de Bendjé (Gabon)

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      glossine, trypanosomose humaine africaine, gabon, glossina, human african trypanosomiasis

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          Abstract

          La situation de la maladie du sommeil est très peu connue au Gabon. De nombreux foyers historiques n’ont pas été prospectés depuis plus de 15 ans. Le foyer historique de Bendjé fournit régulièrement quelques cas, dépistés passivement, qui concernent le plus souvent des pêcheurs dont il est a priori difficile de déterminer le lieu probable de contamination du fait de leur grande mobilité au cours de leurs activités. La présence des hommes infectés dans ce foyer historique pourrait favoriser son réveil s’il existe un contact étroit entre les différents éléments potentiellement présents du cycle épidémiologique (homme, vecteur, trypanosome). Afin de vérifier l’existence éventuelle d’un risque trypanosomien dans ce foyer, nous y avons mené une enquête entomologique. Des pièges ont été posés dans des biotopes fréquentés par l’homme et laissés en place pendant quatre jours. Trois espèces de glossines (Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera newsteadi et G. caliginea) ont été capturées et deux espèces de trypanosomes (Trypanosoma vivax et T. brucei s.l.) identifiées par PCR. Ces résultats suggèrent l’existence d’un cycle de transmission animal. Le contact entre les hommes et les glossines est particulièrement étroit dans tous les types de site prospectés, à l’exception de la mangrove.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Outbreak news. Avian influenza--spread of the virus to new countries.

           PP Simarro (2006)
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            Characterization of trypanosome infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in wild tsetse flies in Cameroon.

            The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to characterize trypanosome infections in tsetse flies from 3 sleeping sickness foci in Cameroon. The predominant tsetse species found was Glossina palpalis palpalis. An average infection rate of 12.1% was revealed by microscopical examination of 888 non-teneral tsets flies. PCR amplification analyses for trypanosome identification were carried out on 467 flies, with primer sets specific for Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei s.1., T. (Duttonella) vivax, T. (Nannomonas) simiae and forest type T. (Nannomonas) congolense. Of 467 flies 93 were positive by microscopical analysis while PCR succeeded in identifying 89 positive flies. Of the PCR-positive flies 34 (38.2%) were negative by microscopical examination. PCR amplification, when compared to the parasitological technique, gave a higher estimate of infection rate of trypanosomes in natural tsetse populations. The PCR technique did, however, fail to identify 40.9% (38/93) of the parasitologically positive flies. The reasons for this failure are discussed. The overall prevalence of mixed infections, assessed by PCR, was 37.1%; the majority (72.7%) involved T. brucei and forest type T. congolense.
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              [Integration of demographic factors in the characterization of risk areas for sleeping sickness in Côte d'Ivoire].

               F Fournet,  A Koné,  A Meda (2001)
              The purpose of this study was to classify the risk for transmission of African human trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) according to population and settlement densities in four different areas of Zoukougbeu, Cote d'Ivoire, where the exact location of cases reported since 1990 is known. Epidemiological risk indexes were calculated from entomological data obtained from three surveys and analyzed with respect to presence of patients and occupancy rate in each area. Results indicated that there was a risk of transmission near the village of Bahigbeu II where the population density is between 30 and 40 inhabitants per km2 and settlement density is 4 per km2. There was also a risk in less inhabited areas such as Ouatigbeu where the population density is less than 30 inhabitants per km2 and dwelling density less than 4 per km2. In fact, cases are regularly reported in Ouatigbeu but never in Bahigbeu II. Based on these findings, we conclude that, while land occupancy can be considered as a risk factor for sleeping sickness, other factors such as human mobility must be taken into account to characterize risk areas and predict outbreaks.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1051/parasite/2011184303
                4897732
                22091460

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

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