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      The freshwater biome gradient framework: predicting macroscale properties based on latitude, altitude, and precipitation

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          Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

          The cycles of the key nutrient elements nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have been massively altered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, it is essential to understand how photosynthetic production across diverse ecosystems is, or is not, limited by N and P. Via a large-scale meta-analysis of experimental enrichments, we show that P limitation is equally strong across these major habitats and that N and P limitation are equivalent within both terrestrial and freshwater systems. Furthermore, simultaneous N and P enrichment produces strongly positive synergistic responses in all three environments. Thus, contrary to some prevailing paradigms, freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems are surprisingly similar in terms of N and P limitation.
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            Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity.

            The flow regime is regarded by many aquatic ecologists to be the key driver of river and floodplain wetland ecosystems. We have focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mechanisms that link hydrology and aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes: Firstly, flow is a major determinant of physical habitat in streams, which in turn is a major determinant of biotic composition; Secondly, aquatic species have evolved life history strategies primarily in direct response to the natural flow regimes; Thirdly, maintenance of natural patterns of longitudinal and lateral connectivity is essential to the viability of populations of many riverine species; Finally, the invasion and success of exotic and introduced species in rivers is facilitated by the alteration of flow regimes. The impacts of flow change are manifest across broad taxonomic groups including riverine plants, invertebrates, and fish. Despite growing recognition of these relationships, ecologists still struggle to predict and quantify biotic responses to altered flow regimes. One obvious difficulty is the ability to distinguish the direct effects of modified flow regimes from impacts associated with land-use change that often accompanies water resource development. Currently, evidence about how rivers function in relation to flow regime and the flows that aquatic organisms need exists largely as a series of untested hypotheses. To overcome these problems, aquatic science needs to move quickly into a manipulative or experimental phase, preferably with the aims of restoration and measuring ecosystem response.
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              Evolution of phosphorus limitation in lakes.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ecosphere
                Ecosphere
                Wiley
                2150-8925
                2150-8925
                July 23 2019
                July 2019
                July 2019
                July 2019
                : 10
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Biology Kansas State University Manhattan Kansas 66506 USA
                [2 ]Department of Entomology University of Georgia Athens Georgia 30602 USA
                [3 ]Global Water Center and Biology Department University of Nevada Reno Nevada 89557 USA
                [4 ]Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering Kansas State University Manhattan Kansas 66506 USA
                [5 ]School of the Environment Washington State University Vancouver Washington 98686 USA
                Article
                10.1002/ecs2.2786
                8ebbdd5c-c36f-4f2c-8a98-15b2f225a924
                © 2019

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1


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