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      The glia of the adult Drosophila nervous system

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          Abstract

          Glia play crucial roles in the development and homeostasis of the nervous system. While the GLIA in the Drosophila embryo have been well characterized, their study in the adult nervous system has been limited. Here, we present a detailed description of the glia in the adult nervous system, based on the analysis of some 500 glial drivers we identified within a collection of synthetic GAL4 lines. We find that glia make up ∼10% of the cells in the nervous system and envelop all compartments of neurons (soma, dendrites, axons) as well as the nervous system as a whole. Our morphological analysis suggests a set of simple rules governing the morphogenesis of glia and their interactions with other cells. All glial subtypes minimize contact with their glial neighbors but maximize their contact with neurons and adapt their macromorphology and micromorphology to the neuronal entities they envelop. Finally, glial cells show no obvious spatial organization or registration with neuronal entities. Our detailed description of all glial subtypes and their regional specializations, together with the powerful genetic toolkit we provide, will facilitate the functional analysis of glia in the mature nervous system. GLIA 2017 GLIA 2017;65:606–638

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          Molecular architecture of smell and taste in Drosophila.

          The chemical senses-smell and taste-allow animals to evaluate and distinguish valuable food resources from dangerous substances in the environment. The central mechanisms by which the brain recognizes and discriminates attractive and repulsive odorants and tastants, and makes behavioral decisions accordingly, are not well understood in any organism. Recent molecular and neuroanatomical advances in Drosophila have produced a nearly complete picture of the peripheral neuroanatomy and function of smell and taste in this insect. Neurophysiological experiments have begun to provide insight into the mechanisms by which these animals process chemosensory cues. Given the considerable anatomical and functional homology in smell and taste pathways in all higher animals, experimental approaches in Drosophila will likely provide broad insights into the problem of sensory coding. Here we provide a critical review of the recent literature in this field and comment on likely future directions.
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            Genetic mosaic with dual binary transcriptional systems in Drosophila.

            MARCM (mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker) involves specific labeling of GAL80-minus and GAL4-positive homozygous cells in otherwise heterozygous tissues. Here we demonstrate how the concurrent use of two independent binary transcriptional systems may facilitate complex MARCM studies in the Drosophila nervous system. By fusing LexA with the VP16 acidic activation domain (VP16) or the GAL4 activation domain (GAD), we obtained both GAL80-insensitive and GAL80-suppressible transcriptional factors. LexA::VP16 can mediate MARCM-independent binary transgene induction in mosaic organisms. The incorporation of LexA::GAD into MARCM, which we call dual-expression-control MARCM, permits the induction of distinct transgenes in different patterns among GAL80-minus cells in mosaic tissues. Lineage analysis with dual-expression-control MARCM suggested the presence of neuroglioblasts in the developing optic lobes but did not indicate the production of glia by postembryonic mushroom body neuronal precursors. In addition, dual-expression-control MARCM with a ubiquitous LexA::GAD driver revealed many unidentified cells in the GAL4-GH146-positive projection neuron lineages.
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              Design principles of insect and vertebrate visual systems.

              A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal's view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers-retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus), and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates; and retina, lamina, and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                gaul@genzentrum.lmu.de
                Journal
                Glia
                Glia
                10.1002/(ISSN)1098-1136
                GLIA
                Glia
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0894-1491
                1098-1136
                30 January 2017
                April 2017
                : 65
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1002/glia.v65.4 )
                : 606-638
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Gene Center and Department of BiochemistryCenter of Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Ludwig‐Maximilians‐University Munich Germany
                [ 2 ]Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Helix Drive Ashburn Virginia
                Author notes
                [*] [* ]Address correspondence to: Dr. Ulrike Gaul, Gene Center and Department of Biochemistry, Center of Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Ludwig‐Maximilians‐University Munich, Feodor‐Lynen‐Strasse 25, D‐81377 Munich, Germany. E‐mail: gaul@ 123456genzentrum.lmu.de
                Article
                GLIA23115
                10.1002/glia.23115
                5324652
                28133822
                8ebe4786-81d2-4be0-8e3e-115018b6299a
                © 2017 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 21 September 2016
                : 22 December 2016
                : 29 December 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 15, Tables: 2, Pages: 34, Words: 16970
                Funding
                Funded by: Janelia Visiting Scientists Program
                Funded by: Alexander von Humboldt‐Professorship from the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
                Funded by: Center for Integrated Protein Science
                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
                Award ID: SFB 646, SFB 1064, CIPSM, QBM
                Funded by: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF: ebio)
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                glia23115
                April 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.0.7 mode:remove_FC converted:24.02.2017

                Neurosciences
                glial subtypes,morphology,glial cell interaction,gal4 lines,multicolor mosaic
                Neurosciences
                glial subtypes, morphology, glial cell interaction, gal4 lines, multicolor mosaic

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