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      Potentiated Response of Corticotropin (ACTH) to Repeated Moderate Hemorrhage Requires Amygdalar Neuronal Processing<footref rid="foot01"> 1</footref>

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          Abstract

          We examined the role of the amygdala in the potentiation of the corticotropin (ACTH) response to a 10 mg/kg hemorrhage by a 1-hour episode of equivalent hypovolemia done 24 h earlier. Unanesthetized rats were studied on the fourth (D1) and fifth (D2) day after chronic implantation of arterial and venous catheters. Immunocytochemistry for Fos protein indicated that neurons in the central and medial nuclei of the caudal amygdala were activated by hemorrhage. We then tested the effect of excitotoxic destruction of the neurons in these areas by bilateral injections of ibotenic acid 10 days prior to catheter placement. In rats that were hemorrhaged on both D1 and D2, the responses of ACTH and corticosterone increased significantly from the first (H1) to the second hemorrhage (H2) in a control group injected with saline (p < 0.05) and in lesioned groups without bilateral damage of the Fos-responsive areas (p < 0.01). In the group with bilateral damage to these sites, the responses to H1 and H2 did not differ. Additional rats had H1 on D2 to control for the long-term effects of the chronic cannulation. The responses of ACTH to H1 on either D1 or D2 did not differ between the saline-injected controls and any of the lesioned groups. In contrast, the response of ACTH to H2 on D2 in rats with bilateral damage of the caudal amygdala was not significant and was less than the response of ACTH to H2 in both rats with unilateral damage of this area (p < 0.05) and those injected with saline (p < 0.05). We conclude that bilateral neuronal processing within the caudal amygdala is required for the potentiation of the response of ACTH to H2 by H1.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Neurocircuitry of stress: central control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.

          Integration of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal stress response occurs by way of interactions between stress-sensitive brain circuitry and neuroendocrine neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Stressors involving an immediate physiologic threat ('systemic' stressors) are relayed directly to the PVN, probably via brainstem catecholaminergic projections. By contrast, stressors requiring interpretation by higher brain structures ('processive' stressors) appear to be channeled through limbic forebrain circuits. Forebrain limbic sites connect with the PVN via interactions with GABA-containing neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area and hypothalamus. Thus, final elaboration of processive stress responses is likely to involve modulation of PVN GABAergic tone. The functional and neuroanatomical data obtained suggest that disease processes involving inappropriate stress control involve dysfunction of processive stress pathways.
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            Subnuclear organization of the efferent connections of the parabrachial nucleus in the rat

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              Responses of adrenocorticotropin and vasopressin to hemorrhage after lesions of the caudal ventrolateral medulla in rats

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2000
                February 2000
                18 February 2000
                : 71
                : 2
                : 88-98
                Affiliations
                Departments of Surgery and Physiology, University of Maryland Baltimore, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md., USA
                Article
                54525 Neuroendocrinology 2000;71:88–98
                10.1159/000054525
                10686523
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, References: 43, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Stress and the Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

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