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      Evaluation of Bloodstream Infections During Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia in Patients with Malignant Hematological Diseases: Single Center Experience

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          Abstract

          From year to year, it is important to get an overview of the occurrence of causative agents in febrile neutropenic patients to determine the empiric treatment. Thus our aims were to evaluate a four-year period regarding the prevalence of bloodstream infections and the most important causative agents. During this period, 1,361 patients were treated in our hematology ward because of various hematological disorders. 812 febrile episodes were recorded in 469 patients. At that time, 3,714 blood culture (BC) bottles were sent for microbiological investigations, 759 of them gave positive signal. From the majority of positive blood culture bottles (67.1%), Gram-positive bacteria, mainly coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), were grown. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 32.9% of the positive blood culture bottles, in these cases the leading pathogen was Escherichia coli. The high prevalence of CNS was attributed to mainly contamination, while lower positivity rate for Gram-negative bacteria was associated with the use of broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic treatment.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Quantitative relationships between circulating leukocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia.

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            Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia: risks, consequences, and new directions for its management.

            Cytotoxic chemotherapy suppresses the hematopoietic system, impairing host protective mechanisms and limiting the doses of chemotherapy that can be tolerated. Neutropenia, the most serious hematologic toxicity, is associated with the risk of life-threatening infections as well as chemotherapy dose reductions and delays that may compromise treatment outcomes. The authors reviewed the recent literature to provide an update on research in chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and its complications and impact, and they discuss the implications of this work for improving the management of patients with cancer who are treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Despite its importance as the primary dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy, much concerning neutropenia and its consequences and impact remains unknown. Recent surveys indicate that neutropenia remains a prevalent problem associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs. Much research has sought to identify risk factors that may predispose patients to neutropenic complications, including febrile neutropenia, in an effort to predict better which patients are at risk and to use preventive strategies, such as prophylactic colony-stimulating factors, more cost-effectively. Neutropenic complications associated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, possibly compromised treatment outcomes, and excess healthcare costs. Research in quantifying the risk of neutropenic complications may make it possible in the near future to target patients at greater risk with appropriate preventive strategies, thereby maximizing the benefits and minimizing the costs. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
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              New developments in the diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

              New techniques have emerged for the detection of bacteria in blood, because the blood culture as gold standard is slow and insufficiently sensitive when the patient has previously received antibiotics or in the presence of fastidious organisms. DNA-based techniques, hybridisation probes, and PCR-based detection or protein-based detection by mass spectroscopy are aimed at rapid identification of bacteria and provide results within 2 h after the first signal of growth in conventional blood cultures. Also, detection of microorganisms directly in blood by pathogen-specific or broad-range PCR assays (eubacterial or panfungal) shows promising results. Interpretation is complex, however, because of detection of DNA rather than living pathogens, the risk of interfering contamination, the presence of background DNA in blood, and the lack of a gold standard. As these techniques are emerging, clinical value and cost-effectiveness have to be assessed. Nevertheless, molecular assays are expected eventually to replace the current conventional microbiological techniques for detection of bloodstream infections.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                18 September 2015
                September 2015
                : 5
                : 3
                : 199-204
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Second Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiological Center, University of Szeged , Szeged, Hungary
                [2 ]Institute of Clinical Microbiology, University of Szeged , Szeged, Hungary
                Author notes
                * Institute of Clinical Microbiology, University of Szeged, Semmelweis street 6, H-6725 Szeged, Hungary; urban.edit@ 123456med.u-szeged.hu
                Article
                10.1556/1886.2015.00021
                4598887
                © 2015, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 22, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Article

                hematology, sepsis, malignancy, neutropenia, blood culture

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