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      The role of the GABA system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders

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          Abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has become a global public health problem. ATS causes severe neurotoxicity, which could lead to addiction and could induce psychotic disorders or cognitive dysfunctions. However, until now, there has been a lack of effective medicines for treating ATS-related problems. Findings from recent studies indicate that in addition to the traditional dopamine-ergic system, the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-ergic system plays an important role in ATS abuse. However, the exact mechanisms of the GABA-ergic system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders are not fully understood. This review discusses the role of the GABA-ergic system in ATS use disorders, including ATS induced psychotic disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. We conclude that the GABA-ergic system are importantly involved in the development of ATS use disorders through multiple pathways, and that therapies or medicines that target specific members of the GABA-ergic system may be novel effective interventions for the treatment of ATS use disorders.

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          Most cited references 122

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          The reward circuit: linking primate anatomy and human imaging.

          Although cells in many brain regions respond to reward, the cortical-basal ganglia circuit is at the heart of the reward system. The key structures in this network are the anterior cingulate cortex, the orbital prefrontal cortex, the ventral striatum, the ventral pallidum, and the midbrain dopamine neurons. In addition, other structures, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and lateral habenular nucleus, and specific brainstem structures such as the pedunculopontine nucleus, and the raphe nucleus, are key components in regulating the reward circuit. Connectivity between these areas forms a complex neural network that mediates different aspects of reward processing. Advances in neuroimaging techniques allow better spatial and temporal resolution. These studies now demonstrate that human functional and structural imaging results map increasingly close to primate anatomy.
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            Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing.

            Concepts of basal ganglia organization have changed markedly over the past decade, due to significant advances in our understanding of the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these structures. Independent evidence from each of these fields has reinforced a growing perception that the functional architecture of the basal ganglia is essentially parallel in nature, regardless of the perspective from which these structures are viewed. This represents a significant departure from earlier concepts of basal ganglia organization, which generally emphasized the serial aspects of their connectivity. Current evidence suggests that the basal ganglia are organized into several structurally and functionally distinct 'circuits' that link cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus, with each circuit focused on a different portion of the frontal lobe. In this review, Garrett Alexander and Michael Crutcher, using the basal ganglia 'motor' circuit as the principal example, discuss recent evidence indicating that a parallel functional architecture may also be characteristic of the organization within each individual circuit.
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              The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation.

              Many organisms, especially humans, are characterized by their capacity for intentional, goal-directed actions. However, similar behaviours often proceed automatically, as habitual responses to antecedent stimuli. How are goal-directed actions transformed into habitual responses? Recent work combining modern behavioural assays and neurobiological analysis of the basal ganglia has begun to yield insights into the neural basis of habit formation.

                Author and article information

                Front Cell Neurosci
                Front Cell Neurosci
                Front. Cell. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                05 May 2015
                : 9
                1Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Shanghai, China
                2Department of Neurochemistry, NY State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities New York, NY, USA
                3State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Rena Li, Roskamp Institute, USA

                Reviewed by: Raluca Reitmeir, University Hospital Bern, Switzerland; Wenhua Zhou, Ningbo University, China

                *Correspondence: Min Zhao, Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Center, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 600 South Wanping Rd., 200030 Shanghai, China drminzhao@ ; drzhaomin@
                Copyright © 2015 Jiao, Liu, Li, Liu and Zhao.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 123, Pages: 13, Words: 10529


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