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      High-level mupirocin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria isolated from diseased companion animals


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          The purpose of this study was to investigate the high-level mupirocin resistance (HLMR) in Gram-positive bacteria isolated from companion animals. A total of 931 clinical specimens were collected from diseased pets. The detection of mupirocin-resistant bacteria and plasmid-mediated mupirocin resistance genes were evaluated by antimicrobial susceptibility tests, polymerase chain reactions, and sequencing analysis. Four-hundred and six (43.6%) bacteria were isolated and 17 (4.2%), including 14 staphylococci and 3 Corynebacterium were high-level mupirocin-resistant (MICs, ≥ 1,024 ug/mL) harboring mupA. Six staphylococci of HLMR strains had plasmid-mediated mupA-IS 257 flanking regions. The results show that HLMR bacteria could spread in veterinary medicine in the near future.

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          Novel multiplex PCR assay for characterization and concomitant subtyping of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types I to V in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

          Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing is essential for understanding the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SCCmec elements are currently classified into types I to V based on the nature of the mec and ccr gene complexes, and are further classified into subtypes according to their junkyard region DNA segments. Previously described traditional SCCmec PCR typing schemes require multiple primer sets and PCR experiments, while a previously published multiplex PCR assay is limited in its ability to detect recently discovered types and subtypes such as SCCmec type V and subtypes IVa, b, c, and d. We designed new sets of SCCmec type- and subtype-unique and specific primers and developed a novel multiplex PCR assay allowing for concomitant detection of the methicillin resistance (mecA gene) (also serving as an internal control) to facilitate detection and classification of all currently described SCCmec types and subtypes I, II, III, IVa, b, c, d, and V. Our assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in accurately characterizing 54 MRSA strains belonging to the various known SCCmec types and subtypes, when compared with previously described typing methods. Further application of our assay in 453 randomly selected local clinical isolates confirmed its feasibility and practicality. This novel assay offers a rapid, simple, and feasible method for SCCmec typing of MRSA, and may serve as a useful tool for clinicians and epidemiologists in their efforts to prevent and control infections caused by this organism.
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            Multiplex-PCR method for species identification of coagulase-positive staphylococci.

            In veterinary medicine, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) other than Staphylococcus aureus have frequently been misidentified as being S. aureus strains, as they have several phenotypic traits in common. There has been no reliable method to distinguish among CoPS species in veterinary clinical laboratories. In the present study, we sequenced the thermonuclease (nuc) genes of staphylococcal species and devised a multiplex-PCR (M-PCR) method for species identification of CoPS by targeting the nuc gene locus. To evaluate sensitivity and specificity, we used this M-PCR method on 374 staphylococcal strains that had been previously identified to the species level by an hsp60 sequencing approach. We could successfully distinguish between S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. schleiferi, S. intermedius, S. pseudintermedius, and S. delphini groups A and B. The present method was both sensitive (99.8%) and specific (100%). Our M-PCR assay will allow the routine species identification of CoPS isolates from various animal species for clinical veterinary diagnosis.
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              In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Fusidic Acid and Retapamulin against Mupirocin- and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

              Background The in vitro activities of retapamulin and fusidic acid against clinical isolates of mupirocin-resistant and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Korea are not well understood. Objective This study aimed to determine the activities of retapamulin and fusidic acid against clinical isolates of mupirocin-resistant MRSA. Methods Clinical isolates of mupirocin-resistant MRSA were collected from two tertiary hospitals. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of mupirocin, fusidic acid, and retapamulin were determined using agar dilution method. Polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the identity of the species and the presence of resistance genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of chromosomal DNA were used to determine the genetic similarity of high-level mupirocin-resistant isolates. Results Of the 497 MRSA isolates tested, 22 (4.4%) were mupirocin-resistant. Of these, 9 (1.8%) and 13 (2.6%) had high-level and low-level mupirocin resistance, respectively. Analysis of the PFGE patterns of the high-level mupirocin-resistant MRSA isolates identified five clusters. All 13 of the low-level mupirocin-resistant isolates were resistant to fusidic acid but susceptible to retapamulin. However, among the 9 high-level mupirocin-resistant isolates, 56% were resistant to fusidic acid, and all were susceptible to retapamulin. Conclusion Retapamulin is highly active in vitro against Korean clinical isolates of high-level mupirocinand methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with different genetic backgrounds. Fusidic acid is more active against high-level mupirocin-resistant MRSA than low-level mupirocin-resistant MRSA.

                Author and article information

                J Vet Sci
                J. Vet. Sci
                Journal of Veterinary Science
                The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
                May 2020
                20 April 2020
                : 21
                : 3
                : e40
                Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Konkuk University College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jae Young Oh. Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Konkuk University College of Veterinary Medicine, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea. ohjy1026@ 123456gmail.com
                Author information
                © 2020 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 06 November 2019
                : 20 February 2020
                : 28 February 2020
                Funded by: Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, CrossRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100003669;
                Award ID: 2017ER5405-02
                Rapid Communication
                Internal Medicine

                Veterinary medicine
                diseased pets,staphylococci,high-level mupirocin resistance,mupa-is257,spread
                Veterinary medicine
                diseased pets, staphylococci, high-level mupirocin resistance, mupa-is257, spread


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