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      Susceptibility Of Ph-Positive All To Tki Therapy Associated With Bcr-Abl Rearrangement Patterns: A Retrospective Analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have demonstrated success in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in patients that express BCR-ABL rearrangements (Philadelphia chromosome [Ph]). The current study aimed to assess the efficacy of TKIs and prognostic factors in the treatment of adults with Ph+-ALL.

          Methods

          In this multicenter retrospective study, the relationship between Ph+-ALL and treatment outcomes among Chinese patients receiving TKI-containing induction/consolidation chemotherapy was examined. A total of 86 Ph+-ALL patients were included and followed for 3.85 (0.43–9.30) years. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were analyzed.

          Results

          A total of 86 Ph+-ALL patients (40 females and 46 males; median age: 34.0 years) were enrolled, including those with BCR/ABL transcripts 190 (n = 52), 210 (n = 25), and 230 (n = 2); BCR/ABL isoform determination was not available for 7 patients. Mortality was influenced by variable BCR/ABL transcripts and TKI administration, and BCR/ABL transcripts, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and TKI administration were associated with the occurrence of events. The OS rate in the TKI administration group during steady state was significantly higher compared with those patients who did not receive TKI administration ( P = 0.008), the EFS rate in the TKI administration group during steady state was significantly higher compared with those patients who did not receive TKIs ( P = 0.012), and also higher than those with TKI salvage administration ( P = 0.004). BCR/ABL transcripts 210 showed preferable OS and EFS compared with BCR/ABL transcripts 190 and 230 ( P<0.05 for each).

          Conclusions

          The susceptibility of Ph+-ALL to TKI associated with the patterns of BCR-ABL rearrangement is demonstrated for the first time, thus adding another risk-stratifying molecular prognostic tool for the management of patients with Ph+-ALL.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Activity of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in the blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the Philadelphia chromosome.

          BCR-ABL, a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase, is the product of the Philadelphia chromosome. This enzyme is present in virtually all cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) throughout the course of the disease, and in 20 percent of cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). On the basis of the substantial activity of the inhibitor in patients in the chronic phase, we evaluated STI571 (formerly known as CGP 57148B), a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, in patients who had CML in blast crisis and in patients with ALL who had the Ph chromosome. In this dose-escalating pilot study, 58 patients were treated with STI571; 38 patients had a myeloid blast crisis and 20 had ALL or a lymphoid blast crisis. Treatment was given orally at daily doses ranging from 300 to 1000 mg. Responses occurred in 21 of 38 patients (55 percent) with a myeloid-blast-crisis phenotype; 4 of these 21 patients had a complete hematologic response. Of 20 patients with a lymphoid blast crisis or ALL, 14 (70 percent) had a response, including 4 who had complete responses. Seven patients with a myeloid blast crisis continue to receive treatment and remain in remission from 101 to 349 days after starting the treatment. All but one patient with a lymphoid blast crisis or ALL has relapsed. The most frequent adverse effects were nausea, vomiting, edema, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 is well tolerated and has substantial activity in the blast crises of CML and in Ph-positive ALL.
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            Karyotype is an independent prognostic factor in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): analysis of cytogenetic data from patients treated on the Medical Research Council (MRC) UKALLXII/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 2993 trial.

            Pretreatment cytogenetics is a known predictor of outcome in hematologic malignancies. However, its usefulness in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is generally limited to the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome because of the low incidence of other recurrent abnormalities. We present centrally reviewed cytogenetic data from 1522 adult patients enrolled on the Medical Research Council (MRC) UKALLXII/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 2993 trial. The incidence and clinical associations for more than 20 specific chromosomal abnormalities are presented. Patients with a Ph chromosome, t(4;11)(q21;q23), t(8;14)(q24.1;q32), complex karyotype (5 or more chromosomal abnormalities), or low hypodiploidy/near triploidy (Ho-Tr) all had inferior rates of event-free and overall survival when compared with other patients. In contrast, patients with high hyperdiploidy or a del(9p) had a significantly improved outcome. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the prognostic relevance of t(8;14), complex karyotype, and Ho-Tr was independent of sex, age, white cell count, and T-cell status among Ph-negative patients. The observation that Ho-Tr and, for the first time, karyotype complexity confer an increased risk of treatment failure demonstrates that cytogenetic subgroups other than the Ph chromosome can and should be used to risk stratify adults with ALL in future trials.
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              Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia with hyper-CVAD and imatinib mesylate.

              Imatinib mesylate, an inhibitor of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase, has modest activity in refractory/relapsed Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Use of concurrent chemotherapy and imatinib mesylate in newly diagnosed Ph-positive ALL was explored. There were 20 patients who received hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, Adriamycin, and dexamethasone) and imatinib mesylate followed by imatinib mesylate-based consolidation/maintenance therapy. Of these patients, 11 had de novo disease, 4 were primary failures after induction (without imatinib mesylate), and 5 were in complete remission (CR) after induction (without imatinib mesylate). All 15 patients treated for active disease achieved CR. Within a median of 3.5 months in first CR, 10 patients underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). One patient relapsed after matched related SCT. The other 9 patients remained alive in CR with median follow-up of 12 months after SCT (range, 1+ to 17+ months). Among 10 patients ineligible for (no donor or older age) or refusing allogeneic SCT, 1 patient relapsed after one year. There were 5 patients who remained alive in continuous CR for a median of 20 months (range, 4+ to 24+ months), with 2 older patients dying in CR at 15 and 16 months of comorbid conditions. Molecular CRs were achieved in both groups (SCT or no SCT). Outcome with hyper-CVAD and imatinib mesylate appears better than with prior regimens; continued accrual and longer follow-up of the current cohort is needed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2014
                21 November 2014
                : 9
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Hematology and BMT center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China
                [2 ]Department of Hematology, General Hospital of Beijing Military Region, Beijing, China
                [3 ]Department of Hematology, the 309th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Beijing, China
                Emory University, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: YJ HC ML YG MZ LY. Performed the experiments: YJ HC ML YG MZ. Analyzed the data: YJ HC ML YG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YJ HC ML YG. Wrote the paper: YJ HC ML YG MZ LY. Manuscript review: YJ HC ML YG MZ HL Y. Zhao HZ WH JB QW Y. Zhang CG LY.

                Article
                PONE-D-14-02082
                10.1371/journal.pone.0110431
                4240579
                25415187

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Pages: 14
                Funding
                This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81170518, 81270611, 81470010), National Public Health Grant Research Foundation (No.201202017) and The capital of the public health project (Z111107067311070), and local foundation from China (Qiong wei 2013-096, 2012FC-TSYS-201, and CXY20140013). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Oncology
                Cancer Detection and Diagnosis
                Cancer Treatment

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