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      Anterior Chamber Paracentesis Might Prevent Sustained Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Intravitreal Injections of Ranibizumab for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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          Background/Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of anterior chamber paracentesis for preventing sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: The medical records for all cases of exudative AMD treated with IVR injections and followed monthly for 12 months or longer were reviewed retrospectively. Anterior chamber paracentesis was performed just before IVR injections. A sustained IOP elevation was defined as 22 mm Hg or higher during 2 consecutive visits with an increase exceeding 6 mm Hg from baseline. Results: One hundred and eleven eyes met the inclusion criteria, and none of these eyes had a sustained IOP elevation. Conclusions: Anterior chamber paracentesis before IVR injections may prevent sustained IOP elevations.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Pegaptanib for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

           ,  A Adamis,  Brian Cunningham (2004)
          Pegaptanib, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, was evaluated in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. We conducted two concurrent, prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, dose-ranging, controlled clinical trials using broad entry criteria. Intravitreous injection into one eye per patient of pegaptanib (at a dose of 0.3 mg, 1.0 mg, or 3.0 mg) or sham injections were administered every 6 weeks over a period of 48 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who had lost fewer than 15 letters of visual acuity at 54 weeks. In the combined analysis of the primary end point (for a total of 1186 patients), efficacy was demonstrated, without a dose-response relationship, for all three doses of pegaptanib (P<0.001 for the comparison of 0.3 mg with sham injection; P<0.001 for the comparison of 1.0 mg with sham injection; and P=0.03 for the comparison of 3.0 mg with sham injection). In the group given pegaptanib at 0.3 mg, 70 percent of patients lost fewer than 15 letters of visual acuity, as compared with 55 percent among the controls (P<0.001). The risk of severe loss of visual acuity (loss of 30 letters or more) was reduced from 22 percent in the sham-injection group to 10 percent in the group receiving 0.3 mg of pegaptanib (P<0.001). More patients receiving pegaptanib (0.3 mg), as compared with sham injection, maintained their visual acuity or gained acuity (33 percent vs. 23 percent; P=0.003). As early as six weeks after beginning therapy with the study drug, and at all subsequent points, the mean visual acuity among patients receiving 0.3 mg of pegaptanib was better than in those receiving sham injections (P<0.002). Among the adverse events that occurred, endophthalmitis (in 1.3 percent of patients), traumatic injury to the lens (in 0.7 percent), and retinal detachment (in 0.6 percent) were the most serious and required vigilance. These events were associated with a severe loss of visual acuity in 0.1 percent of patients. Pegaptanib appears to be an effective therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Its long-term safety is not known. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Intraocular pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab after a single intravitreal injection in humans.

            To investigate intraocular concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab after a single intravitreal injection in humans. Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. We included 30 nonvitrectomized eyes of 30 patients (age range, 43 to 93 years) diagnosed with clinically significant cataract and concurrent macular edema secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, or retinal venous occlusion in the same eye. All patients received an intravitreal injection of 1.5 mg bevacizumab. Between one and 53 days after injection, an aqueous humor sample was obtained during elective cataract surgery. Concentrations of unbound bevacizumab in these samples were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Concentration of bevacizumab in aqueous humor peaked on the first day after injection with a mean concentration (c(max)) of 33.3 microg/ml (range, 16.6 to 42.5 microg/ml) and subsequently declined in a monoexponential fashion. Nonlinear regression analysis determined an elimination half-time (t(1/2)) of 9.82 days (R(2) = 0.81). No significant differences between diagnosis subgroups were noted. In human nonvitrectomized eyes, the aqueous half-life of 1.5 mg intravitreally injected bevacizumab is 9.82 days.
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              Sustained elevation of intraocular pressure after intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents.

              To report the rate of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation associated with repeated intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents and to determine if a pre-existing diagnosis of glaucoma is a risk factor for this phenomenon. The charts of 215 eyes undergoing intravitreal injection with anti-VEGF agents for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were retrospectively examined with respect to frequency of injections, number of injections and changes in IOP. Data were analysed independently for two groups (1) pre-existing glaucoma and (2) no history of glaucoma. Of the 215 eyes receiving injections with bevacizumab and/or ranibizumab, 6% (n=13) had sustained IOP elevation requiring medical or laser interventions. Of the eyes receiving only bevacizumab, 9.9% (10/101) had sustained elevated IOP, while 3.1% (3/96) of eyes receiving only ranibizumab experienced increases (p=0.049). Patients with pre-existing glaucoma experienced higher rates of elevated IOP when compared with patients without pre-existing glaucoma (33% vs 3.1% respectively; p<0.001). The glaucoma subgroup had a lower median number of injections (6; interquartile range 5-10) compared with the non-glaucoma group (9.5; interquartile range 6-13.7; p=0.031). The incidence of sustained elevated IOP in patients receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections is significant. Additionally, these data suggest the possibility of a heightened risk for further elevation of IOP in patients with pre-existing glaucoma who receive either bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Prospective studies are needed to verify these results and better understand the implications of these findings.

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                November 2014
                14 November 2014
                : 52
                : 4
                : 234-238
                Department of Ophthalmology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan
                Author notes
                *Tomoko Sawada, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowacho, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192 (Japan), E-Mail tsawada@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp
                365253 Ophthalmic Res 2014;52:234-238
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 5
                Original Paper


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