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      Ketamine for pain management

      a , * , b

      Pain Reports

      Wolters Kluwer

      Ketamine, Pain management

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          Most cited references 61

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          A systematic review of intravenous ketamine for postoperative analgesia.

          Perioperative intravenous ketamine may be a useful addition in pain management regimens. Previous systematic reviews have included all methods of ketamine administration, and heterogeneity between studies has been substantial. This study addresses this issue by narrowing the inclusion criteria, using a random effects model, and performing subgroup analysis to determine the specific types of patients, surgery, and clinical indications which may benefit from perioperative ketamine administration. We included published studies from 1966 to 2010 which were randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled using intravenous ketamine (bolus or infusion) to decrease postoperative pain. Studies using any form of regional anesthesia were excluded. No limitation was placed on the ketamine dose, patient age, or language of publication. Ninety-one comparisons in seventy studies involving 4,701 patients met the inclusion criteria (2,652 in ketamine groups and 2,049 in placebo groups). Forty-seven of these studies were appropriate for evaluation in the core meta-analysis, and the remaining 23 studies were used to corroborate the results. A reduction in total opioid consumption and an increase in the time to first analgesic were observed across all studies (P < 0.001). The greatest efficacy was found for thoracic, upper abdominal, and major orthopedic surgical subgroups. Despite using less opioid, 25 out of 32 treatment groups (78%) experienced less pain than the placebo groups at some point postoperatively when ketamine was efficacious. This finding implies an improved quality of pain control in addition to decreased opioid consumption. Hallucinations and nightmares were more common with ketamine but sedation was not. When ketamine was efficacious for pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting was less frequent in the ketamine group. The dose-dependent role of ketamine analgesia could not be determined. Intravenous ketamine is an effective adjunct for postoperative analgesia. Particular benefit was observed in painful procedures, including upper abdominal, thoracic, and major orthopedic surgeries. The analgesic effect of ketamine was independent of the type of intraoperative opioid administered, timing of ketamine administration, and ketamine dose.
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            Inhibition of morphine tolerance and dependence by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801.

             H Akil,  K Trujillo (1991)
            The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor is an important mediator of several forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. The present studies examined whether NMDA receptors might be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence, two examples of behavioral plasticity. The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine without affecting acute morphine analgesia. In addition, MK-801 attenuated the development of morphine dependence as assessed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results suggest that NMDA receptors may be important in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence.
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              Ketamine pharmacology: an update (pharmacodynamics and molecular aspects, recent findings).

               Georges Mion (corresponding) ,  Thierry Villevieille (2013)
              For more than 50 years, ketamine has proven to be a safe anesthetic drug with potent analgesic properties. The active enantiomer is S(+)-ketamine. Ketamine is mostly metabolized in norketamine, an active metabolite. During "dissociative anesthesia", sensory inputs may reach cortical receiving areas, but fail to be perceived in some association areas. Ketamine also enhances the descending inhibiting serotoninergic pathway and exerts antidepressive effects. Analgesic effects persist for plasma concentrations ten times lower than hypnotic concentrations. Activation of the (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate [NMDA]) receptor plays a fundamental role in long-term potentiation but also in hyperalgesia and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The antagonism of NMDA receptor is responsible for ketamine's more specific properties. Ketamine decreases the "wind up" phenomenon, and the antagonism is more important if the NMDA channel has been previously opened by the glutamate binding ("use dependence"). Experimentally, ketamine may promote neuronal apoptotic lesions but, in usual clinical practice, it does not induce neurotoxicity. The consequences of high doses, repeatedly administered, are not known. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in chronic users of ketamine, as well as frontal white matter abnormalities. Animal studies suggest that neurodegeneration is a potential long-term risk of anesthetics in neonatal and young pediatric patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                Author and article information

                Pain Rep
                Pain Rep
                Pain Reports
                Wolters Kluwer (Philadelphia, PA )
                Sep-Oct 2018
                09 August 2018
                : 3
                : 5
                [a ]Regional Centre of Excellence in Palliative Care, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
                [b ]Perioperative, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Pain Clinic, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Address: Regional Centre of Excellence in Palliative Care, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway. Tel.: +47 90 09 2382; fax: +47 55 97 58 25. E-mail address: rae.bell@ 123456helse-bergen.no (R.F. Bell).
                PAINREPORTS-D-18-0037 00007
                Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of The International Association for the Study of Pain.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                PAIN Clinical Updates
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