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      Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Deficiency Has Renal Benefits but Some Adverse Systemic Consequences in Diabetic Mice

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          Background:Elevated plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are observed in patients with obesity, hypertension and diabetes, and several observations suggest that PAI-1 mediates diabetic vascular complications. Although increased intrarenal expression of PAI-1 is also a feature of diabetic nephropathy, evidence that PAI-1 plays a primary pathogenetic role in the renal pathology is lacking. Methods: This study was designed to investigate the renal effects of genetic PAI-1 deficiency in db/db mice with obesity, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. For comparison the effects of PAI-1 deficiency were also examined in a cohort of mice with insulin-deficient streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The findings are reported for 4 study groups at 8 months of age: PAI-1+/+ controls, PAI-1+/+ diabetics, PAI-1–/– controls and PAI-1–/– diabetics. Results: PAI-1 deficiency had an unexpected negative impact on the db/db mice. Overall 33% of the diabetic mice died prematurely, and 63% of the db/db PAI-1–/– males had an obese body habitus but were runts. The final analyses were limited to the female db/db mice. Several nephropathy parameters were improved in the db/db PAI-1–/– group compared to the db/db PAI-1+/+ group including: albumin-to-creatinine ratios (57 ± 45 vs. 145 ± 71 µg/mg ×10), change in glomerular extracellular matrix (ECM) area (decrease of 10% compared to controls vs. an increase of 31%) and increased total kidney collagen (47% increased vs. 96% in the PAI-1+/+ diabetics). The serum glucose levels were 15–25% lower in the PAI-1–/– nondiabetic control groups and remained lower in the db/db PAI-1–/– mice. The STZ study was performed in males. None of the mice developed a runted phenotype or died prematurely. After diabetes of 6 months’ duration changes in glomerular ECM area (–15 vs. +64%) and total kidney collagen (+8 vs. +40%) were lower in the PAI-1–/– mice compared to the PAI-1+/+ mice. The serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the PAI-1–/– mice, both controls (47 ± 3 vs. 53 ± 10 mg/dl) and diabetics (48 ± 3 vs. 74 ± 9 mg/dl). Conclusion: These data suggest a direct role for PAI-1 in renal matrix expansion and metabolic control in diabetes, but they also highlight important adverse outcomes that include male runting and premature death in mice with diabetes due to an inactive leptin receptor.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Reversal of lesions of diabetic nephropathy after pancreas transplantation.

          In patients with type I diabetes mellitus who do not have uremia and have not received a kidney transplant, pancreas transplantation does not ameliorate established lesions of diabetic nephropathy within five years after transplantation, but the effects of longer periods of normoglycemia are unknown. We studied kidney function and performed renal biopsies before pancreas transplantation and 5 and 10 years thereafter in eight patients with type I diabetes but without uremia who had mild to advanced lesions of diabetic nephropathy at the time of transplantation. The biopsy samples were analyzed morphometrically. All patients had persistently normal glycosylated hemoglobin values after transplantation. The median urinary albumin excretion rate was 103 mg per day before transplantation, 30 mg per day 5 years after transplantation, and 20 mg per day 10 years after transplantation (P=0.07 for the comparison of values at base line and at 5 years; P=0.11 for the comparison between base line and 10 years). The mean (+/-SD) creatinine clearance rate declined from 108+/-20 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area at base line to 74+/-16 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 at 5 years (P<0.001) and 74+/-14 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 at 10 years (P<0.001). The thickness of the glomerular and tubular basement membranes was similar at 5 years (570+/-64 and 928+/-173 nm, respectively) and at base line (594+/-81 and 911+/-133 nm, respectively) but had decreased by 10 years (to 404+/-38 and 690+/-111 nm, respectively; P<0.001 and P=0.004 for the comparisons with the base-line values). The mesangial fractional volume (the proportion of the glomerulus occupied by the mesangium) increased from base line (0.33+/-0.07) to 5 years (0.39+/-0.10, P=0.02) but had decreased at 10 years (0.27+/-0.02, P=0.05 for the comparison with the baseline value and P=0.006 for the comparison with the value at 5 years), mostly because of a reduction in mesangial matrix. Pancreas transplantation can reverse the lesions of diabetic nephropathy, but reversal requires more than five years of normoglycemia.
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            Modifications of a specific assay for hydroxyproline in urine.

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              Signaling at the slit diaphragm.


                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                August 2006
                31 May 2006
                : 104
                : 1
                : e23-e34
                aChildren’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., and bDepartment of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, N.Y., USA
                93673 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;104:e23–e34
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 55, Pages: 1
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