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      Gender Matters: Workplace Bullying, Gender, and Mental Health

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          The aim of this study was to examine the role of gender in the process of workplace bullying. In particular, we examined how gender affects reported prevalence rates and health consequences of bullying. In addition, we pay particular attention to if the measurement method – self-labelling or behavioural experience methods – affects potential gender differences. A longitudinal study, with two measurement points 18 months apart, was conducted in Sweden ( n = 1854 at T1; n = 1096 at T2). It was a probability sample out of a population of all 3.3 million people in Sweden working at workplaces with ten or more employees. The results showed a slightly higher tendency for women to self-label as bullied (8% vs. 6%), while a higher proportion of men than women could be labelled as bullied based on the negative acts they had been exposed to (21% vs. 14%). Exposure to negative acts was associated with more subsequent mental health problems for both men and women, whereas self-labelling was associated with mental health problems for men only. Mental health problems at baseline also increased the risk of bullying for both men and women; however, the measurement method affected if the effect was stronger for men or women. Overall, the study advances our understanding of the role of gender in bullying, in particular highlighting the importance of the measurement method for understanding such gender differences.

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          Most cited references 64

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          The hospital anxiety and depression scale.

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          A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.
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            Description and Prescription: How Gender Stereotypes Prevent Women's Ascent Up the Organizational Ladder

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              Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised


                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                06 October 2020
                : 11
                1Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University , Linköping, Sweden
                2Department of Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Economics , Helsinki, Finland
                3Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University , Linköping, Sweden
                Author notes

                Edited by: Roberta Fida, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Dieter Zapf, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany; Giulio Arcangeli, University of Florence, Italy

                *Correspondence: Michael Rosander, michael.rosander@ 123456liu.se

                This article was submitted to Organizational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2020 Rosander, Salin, Viita and Blomberg.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 67, Pages: 13, Words: 0
                Funded by: AFA Försäkring 10.13039/501100002706
                Award ID: 160285
                Funded by: Forskningsrådet om Hälsa, Arbetsliv och Välfärd 10.13039/501100006636
                Award ID: 2019-01232
                Original Research


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