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      Resveratrol Induces Long-Lasting IL-8 Expression and Peculiar EGFR Activation/Distribution in Human Keratinocytes: Mechanisms and Implications for Skin Administration

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          Abstract

          Anti-inflammatory and skin tumour preventing effects of resveratrol have been extensively studied pre-clinically and resveratrol has been proposed for clinical investigations. To provide a basis or/and limitations for topical administration to human skin, molecular mechanisms underlying resveratrol effects towards normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) were evaluated. NHEK were challenged by either resveratrol alone or by its combination with TNFalpha or TGFalpha, and time-dependent molecular events were monitored. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) expression and its mRNA stability, ERK1/2, p65/RelA, and EGFR phosphorylation were determined. Intracellular distribution of EGFR/P-EGFR was measured in the membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear fractions. Specific DNA binding activity of NFκB (p65/RelA) and AP-1(c-Fos), NHEK proliferation, and molecular markers of apoptosis/cell cycle were detected. Resveratrol induced delayed, long-lasting and steadily growing IL-8 gene and protein over-expression as well as enhanced EGFR phosphorylation, both abrogated by the EGFR kinase inhibitor PD168393. However, resveratrol did not act as a phosphatase inhibitor. ERK phosphorylation was transiently inhibited at early time-points and activated at 6–24 h. Accordingly, c-Fos-specific DNA binding was increased by resveratrol. Cellular distribution of EGFR/P-EGFR was shifted to membrane and nucleus while cytosolic levels were reduced concomitant with enhanced degradation. Notwithstanding high nuclear levels of EGFR/P-EGFR, spontaneous and TGFalpha-triggered cell proliferation was strongly suppressed by resveratrol mainly through cell cycle arrest.

          Conclusions/Significance

          Resveratrol synergized with TNFα in the induction of delayed, long-lasting IL-8 expression through sustained EGFR-ERK axis activation. The time course indicates that resveratrol metabolites could be implicated. Topical administration of Resv to psoriatic patients over-expressing TNFα, IL-8 and EGFR-ERK in the skin should be cautiously considered. Since high nuclear levels of EGFR correspond to increased risk of tumorigenesis, chronic resveratrol application to the skin may be potentially dangerous. Wound healing acceleration by resveratrol could not be envisaged due to its anti-proliferative effects towards normal keratinocytes.

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          Most cited references 64

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          p63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells.

          The proliferative compartment of stratified squamous epithelia consists of stem and transient amplifying (TA) keratinocytes. Some polypeptides are more abundant in putative epidermal stem cells than in TA cells, but no polypeptide confined to the stem cells has yet been identified. Here we show that the p63 transcription factor, a p53 homologue essential for regenerative proliferation in epithelial development, distinguishes human keratinocyte stem cells from their TA progeny. Within the cornea, nuclear p63 is expressed by the basal cells of the limbal epithelium, but not by TA cells covering the corneal surface. Human keratinocyte stem and TA cells when isolated in culture give rise to holoclones and paraclones, respectively. We show by clonal analysis that p63 is abundantly expressed by epidermal and limbal holoclones, but is undetectable in paraclones. TA keratinocytes, immediately after their withdrawal from the stem cell compartment (meroclones), have greatly reduced p63, even though they possess very appreciable proliferative capacity. Clonal evolution (i.e., generation of TA cells from precursor stem cells) is promoted by the sigma isoform of the 14-3-3 family of proteins. Keratinocytes whose 14-3-3final sigma has been down-regulated remain in the stem cell compartment and maintain p63 during serial cultivation. The identification of p63 as a keratinocyte stem cell marker will be of practical importance for the clinical application of epithelial cultures in cell therapy as well as for studies on epithelial tumorigenesis.
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            Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced generation of hydrogen peroxide. Role in EGF receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation.

            Recent evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may function as intracellular messengers in receptor signaling pathways. The possible role of ROS in epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling was therefore investigated. Stimulation of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells with EGF resulted in a transient increase in the intracellular concentration of ROS, measured with the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The predominant ROS produced appeared to be H2O2, because the EGF-induced increase in fluorescence was completely abolished by incorporation of catalase into the cells by electroporation. The elimination of H2O2 by catalase also inhibited the EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of various cellular proteins including the EGF receptor and phospholipase C-gamma1. The dependence of H2O2 production on the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor and the autophosphorylation sites located in its COOH-terminal tail was investigated. EGF failed to induce H2O2 generation in cells expressing a kinase-inactive EGF receptor. However, normal H2O2 generation was observed in cells expressing a mutant receptor from which the 126 COOH-terminal amino acids had been deleted to remove four (out of the total of five) autophosphorylation sites. These results suggest that EGF-induced H2O2 formation requires the kinase activity but probably not the autophosphorylation sites of the EGF receptor and that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity by H2O2 may be required for EGF-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation to be manifested.
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              Biological activity of piceatannol: leaving the shadow of resveratrol.

              Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring stilbene, is considered to have a number of beneficial effects, including anticancer, anti-aethrogenic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and estrogenic activity. Piceatannol (3, 3', 4, 5'-trans-trihydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring hydroxylated analogue of resveratrol, is less studied than resveratrol but displays a wide spectrum of biological activity. Piceatannol has been found in various plants, including grapes, passion fruit, white tea, and Japanese knotweed. Besides antioxidative effects, piceatannol exhibits potential anticancer properties as suggested by its ability to suppress proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells, including leukemia, lymphoma; cancers of the breast, prostate, colon and melanoma. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of piceatannol are mediated through cell-cycle arrest; upregulation of Bid, Bax. Bik, Bok, Fas: P21(WAF1) down-regulation of Bcl-xL; BCL-2, clAP, activation of caspases (-3, -7,- 8, -9), loss of mitochondrial potential, and release of cytochrome c. Piceatannol has been shown to suppress the activation of some transcription factors, including NF-kappaB, which plays a central role as a transcriptional regulator in response to cellular stress caused by free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, cytokines, or microbial antigens. Piceatannol also inhibits JAK-1, which is a key member of the STAT pathway that is crucial in controlling cellular activities in response to extracellular cytokines and is a COX-2-inducible enzyme involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Although piceatannol has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, there are examples of its anti-apoptotic pro-proliferative activity. Piceatannol inhibits Syk kinase, which plays a crucial role in the coordination of immune recognition receptors and orchestrates multiple downstream signaling pathways in various hematopoietic cells. Piceatannol also binds estrogen receptors and stimulates growth of estrogen-dependent cancer cells. Piceatannol is rapidly metabolized in the liver and is converted mainly to a glucuronide conjugate; however, sulfation is also possible, based on in vitro studies. The pharmacological properties of piceatannol, especially its antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities, suggests that piceatannol might be a potentially useful nutritional and pharmacological biomolecule; however, more data are needed on its bioavailability and toxicity in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                18 March 2013
                : 8
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Lab. Tissue Engineering and Skin Pathophysiology, Dermatology Institute (Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, IDI IRCCS), Rome, Italy
                University of Tennessee, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors do not have any competing interests.

                Prepared the illustrations: SP CD RM ED. Conceived and designed the experiments: SP LK. Performed the experiments: DL RM ED. Analyzed the data: SP ED LK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CD. Wrote the paper: SP LK.

                Article
                PONE-D-13-02963
                10.1371/journal.pone.0059632
                3601074
                23527233

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Funding
                The work was financed by grant RC-2011-IDI IRCCS from the Italian Ministry for Health. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Endocrine System
                Endocrine Physiology
                Epidermal Growth Factor
                Molecular Cell Biology
                Signal Transduction
                Signaling Cascades
                Apoptotic Signaling Cascade
                Signaling in Cellular Processes
                Apoptotic Signaling
                Cellular Stress Responses
                Gene Expression
                Proteomics
                Protein Abundance
                Protein Interactions

                Uncategorized

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