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      Revision of Chinese Phorocardius species (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Cardiophorinae)

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          Abstract

          The Chinese species of Phorocardius Fleutiaux, 1931 have been studied and six species are described as new: P. alterlineatus Ruan & Douglas, sp. nov.; P. flavistriolatus Ruan & Douglas, sp. nov.; P. minutus Ruan & Douglas, sp. nov.; P. rufiposterus Ruan & Douglas, sp. nov.; P. yunnanensis Ruan & Douglas, sp. nov.; and P. zhiweii Ruan, Douglas & Qiu, sp. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Cardiophorus comptus Candèze, 1860, Cardiophorus contemptus Candèze, 1860, Phorocardius magnus Fleutiaux, 1931, and Cardiophorus manuleatus Candèze, 1888. The holotype is identified for Cardiophorus yanagiharae Miwa, 1927. Phorocardius florentini (Fleutiaux, 1895) and P. manuleatus (Candèze, 1888) are newly reported from China; P. comptus (Candèze, 1860) is excluded from the Chinese fauna. A key to the 11 Phorocardius species known from China is given. Phorocardius is newly recorded from deep within the Palearctic Region. The procoxal cavities of P. rufiposterus Ruan & Douglas, sp. nov. are closed, which is different from all other species of Phorocardius. An annotated checklist of the 21 Phorocardius species of the world is provided. Additionally, Phorocardius contemptus (Candèze, 1860), comb. nov. is transferred from Cardiophorus to Phorocardius; four species are transferred from Phorocardius to Displatynychus: Displatynychus bombycinus (Candèze, 1895), comb. nov., Displatynychus pakistanicus (Platia & Ahmed, 2016), comb. nov., Displatynychus sobrinus (Laporte, 1840), comb. nov., and Displatynychus tibialis (Platia & Ahmed, 2016), comb. nov.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.

          Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
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            Phylogenetic relationships of Elateridae inferred from adult morphology, with special reference to the position of Cardiophorinae

             HUME DOUGLAS (2011)
            A phylogeny is presented for the Elateridae, inferred from parsimony and Bayesian analyses of 175 adult morphological characters. Analyses using non gap-weighted morphological data yielded results compatible with each other and some published classifications, while gap-weighted parsimony analysis did not. Bayesian posterior probabilities for the monophyly of the Elateridae and the elaterid subfamilies Athoinae (sensu Dolin 1975), Cardiophorinae (including Exoeolus Broun), Denticollinae (sensu Stibick 1979a), Elaterinae (sensu Stibick 1979a), Hypnoidinae (sensu Stibick 1976) and Lissominae (sensu Calder et al. 1993) were less than 0.05. The bioluminescent genus Pyrophorus was found to be an apical member of the mostly non-bioluminescent Agrypninae, supporting the hypothesis of at least one independent origin of bioluminescence in the Elateridae. The closest relatives to the Cardiophorinae minus Exoeolus were found in the Negastriinae. The subfamilies Cardiophorinae + Negastriinae + Tropihypnus Reitter together rendered the Hypnoidinae (or the tribe Hypnoidini of Denticollinae) paraphyletic. Lesnelater madagascariensis Fleutiaux (the type species of Lesnelater Fleutiaux) is synonymised under the type species of Pachyelater Lesne: P. madagascariensis (Lesne) so that Lesnelater is a new synonym of Pachyelater. The genus Exoeolus Broun is transferred from the Cardiophorinae to the Hemiopinae; the fossil genus Crioraphes Iablokoff-Khnzorian is transferred to the Elaterinae incertae sedis; the fossil genera Pseudocardiophorites Dolin, and Protocardiophorus Dolin are transferred to Elateroidea incertae sedis. Dolin’s (1976) hypothesis of a Jurassic origin of the Cardiophorinae was not supported by fossil evidence.
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              Biogeographical regionalisation of the world: a reappraisal

               Juan Morrone (2015)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                ZooKeys
                ZK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2970
                1313-2989
                November 16 2020
                November 16 2020
                : 993
                : 47-120
                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.993.53805
                7683496
                33262675
                © 2020

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