Keiichi Sumida , 1 , Yoshifumi Ubara 1 , Junichi Hoshino 1 , Noriko Hayami 1 , Tatsuya Suwabe 1 , Rikako Hiramatsu 1 , Eiko Hasegawa 1 , Masayuki Yamanouchi 1 , Naoki Sawa 1 , Kenmei Takaichi 1 , Kenichi Ohashi 2
23 April 2013
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder that is characterized by the development of cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Urinary protein excretion is usually less than 1 g/day, and ADPKD is rarely associated with nephrotic syndrome or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). To date, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) has not been reported in a patient with ADPKD.
We report two cases of MPO-ANCA positive ADPKD. A 60-year-old Japanese woman (case 1) and a 54-year-old Japanese woman (case 2) presented with RPGN featuring severe proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. In both patients percutaneous needle biopsy of the kidney revealed MPO-ANCA-associated CrGN with a paucity of glomerular immunoglobulin staining. Each patient received intravenous methylprednisolone for 3 days, followed by oral prednisolone. Case 1 showed gradual improvement and has not progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but case 2 developed ESRD requiring hemodialysis within one month despite treatment.
These are the first two reported cases of MPO-ANCA-associated CrGN in patients with ADPKD. Our experience suggests that serial measurement of the ANCA titer and renal biopsy should be considered for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of ADPKD patients who present with proteinuria, hematuria, and rapid decline of renal function.