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      Larval Behavior and Longevity in the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa Indicate Potential for Long Distance Dispersal

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      Frontiers in Marine Science

      Frontiers Media SA

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          Evidence for slow mixing across the pycnocline from an open-ocean tracer-release experiment

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            Temperature control of larval dispersal and the implications for marine ecology, evolution, and conservation.

            Temperature controls the rate of fundamental biochemical processes and thereby regulates organismal attributes including development rate and survival. The increase in metabolic rate with temperature explains substantial among-species variation in life-history traits, population dynamics, and ecosystem processes. Temperature can also cause variability in metabolic rate within species. Here, we compare the effect of temperature on a key component of marine life cycles among a geographically and taxonomically diverse group of marine fish and invertebrates. Although innumerable lab studies document the negative effect of temperature on larval development time, little is known about the generality versus taxon-dependence of this relationship. We present a unified, parameterized model for the temperature dependence of larval development in marine animals. Because the duration of the larval period is known to influence larval dispersal distance and survival, changes in ocean temperature could have a direct and predictable influence on population connectivity, community structure, and regional-to-global scale patterns of biodiversity.
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              Pelagic larval duration and dispersal distance revisited.

              I present dispersal distances for 44 species with data on propagule duration (PD) for 40 of these. Data were combined with those in Shanks et al. (2003; Ecol. Appl. 13: S159-S169), providing information on 67 species. PD and dispersal distance are correlated, but with many exceptions. The distribution of dispersal distances was bimodal. Many species with PDs longer than 1 day dispersed less than 1 km, while others dispersed tens to hundreds of kilometers. Organisms with short dispersal distances were pelagic briefly or remained close to the bottom while pelagic. Null models of passively dispersing propagules adequately predict dispersal distance for organisms with short PDs (<1 day), but overestimate dispersal distances for those with longer PDs. These models predict that propagules are transported tens of kilometers offshore; however, many types remain within the coastal boundary layer where currents are slower and more variable, leading to lower than predicted dispersal. At short PDs, dispersal distances estimated from genetic data are similar to observed. At long PDs, genetic data generally overestimate dispersal distance. This discrepancy is probably due to the effect of rare individuals that disperse long distances, thus smoothing genetic differences between populations. Larval behavior and species' life-history traits can play a critical role in determining dispersal distance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Marine Science
                Front. Mar. Sci.
                Frontiers Media SA
                2296-7745
                December 12 2017
                December 12 2017
                : 4
                Article
                10.3389/fmars.2017.00411
                © 2017

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