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      BNP as a New Biomarker of Cardiac Thyroid Hormone Function

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          Abstract

          Background

          Cardiac re-expression of fetal genes in patients with heart failure (HF) suggests the presence of low cardiac tissue thyroid hormone (TH) function. However, serum concentrations of T3 and T4 are often normal or subclinically low, necessitating an alternative serum biomarker for low cardiac TH function to guide treatment of these patients. The clinical literature suggests that serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) levels are inversely associated with serum triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) levels. The objective of this study was to investigate BNP as a potential serum biomarker for TH function in the heart.

          Methods

          Two animal models of thyroid hormone deficiency: (1) 8-weeks of propyl thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism (Hypo) in adult female rats were subsequently treated with oral T3 (10 μg/kg/d) for 3, 6, or 14 days; (2) HF induced by coronary artery ligation (myocardial infarction, MI) in adult female rats was treated daily with low dose oral T3 (5 μg/kg/d) for 8 or 16 wks.

          Results

          Six days of T3 treatment of Hypo rats normalized most cardiac functional parameters. Serum levels of BNP increased 5-fold in Hypo rats, while T3 treatment normalized BNP by day 14, showing a significant inverse relationship between serum BNP and free or total T3 concentrations. Myocardial BNP mRNA was increased 2.5-fold in Hypo rats and its expression was decreased to normal values by 14 days of T3 treatment. Measurements of hemodynamic function showed significant dysfunction in MI rats after 16 weeks, with serum BNP increased by 4.5-fold and serum free and total T3 decreased significantly. Treatment with T3 decreased serum BNP while increasing total T3 indicating an inverse correlation between these two biologic factors ( r 2 = 0.676, p < 0.001). Myocardial BNP mRNA was increased 5-fold in MI rats which was significantly decreased by T3 over 8 to 16 week treatment periods.

          Conclusions

          Results from the two models of TH dysfunction confirmed an inverse relationship between tissue and serum T3 and BNP, such that the reduction in serum BNP could potentially be utilized to monitor efficacy and dosing of T3 treatment. Thus, serum BNP may serve as a reliable biomarker for cardiac TH function.

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          Most cited references 54

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          MicroRNA-208a is a regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and conduction in mice.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that have gained status as important regulators of gene expression. Here, we investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of the miR-208 family of miRNAs in adult mouse heart physiology. We found that miR-208a, which is encoded within an intron of alpha-cardiac muscle myosin heavy chain gene (Myh6), was actually a member of a miRNA family that also included miR-208b, which was determined to be encoded within an intron of beta-cardiac muscle myosin heavy chain gene (Myh7). These miRNAs were differentially expressed in the mouse heart, paralleling the expression of their host genes. Transgenic overexpression of miR-208a in the heart was sufficient to induce hypertrophic growth in mice, which resulted in pronounced repression of the miR-208 regulatory targets thyroid hormone-associated protein 1 and myostatin, 2 negative regulators of muscle growth and hypertrophy. Studies of the miR-208a Tg mice indicated that miR-208a expression was sufficient to induce arrhythmias. Furthermore, analysis of mice lacking miR-208a indicated that miR-208a was required for proper cardiac conduction and expression of the cardiac transcription factors homeodomain-only protein and GATA4 and the gap junction protein connexin 40. Together, our studies uncover what we believe are novel miRNA-dependent mechanisms that modulate cardiac hypertrophy and electrical conduction.
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            A new natriuretic peptide in porcine brain.

            Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a hormone secreted from mammalian atria, regulates the homoeostatic balance of body fluid and blood pressure. ANP-like immunoreactivity is also present in the brain, suggesting that the peptide functions as a neuropeptide. We report here identification in porcine brain of a novel peptide of 26 amino-acid residues, eliciting a pharmacological spectrum very similar to that of ANP, such as natriuretic-diuretic, hypotensive and chick rectum relaxant activities. The complete amino-acid sequence determined for the peptide is remarkably similar to but definitely distinct from the known sequence of ANP, indicating that the genes for the two are distinct. Thus, we have designated the peptide 'brain natriuretic peptide' (BNP). The occurrence of BNP with ANP in mammalian brain suggests the possibility that the physiological functions so far thought to be mediated by ANP may be regulated through a dual mechanism involving both ANP and BNP.
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              B-type natriuretic peptides and cardiovascular risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of 40 prospective studies.

              Measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration or its precursor (N-terminal fragment [NT-proBNP]) is recommended in patients with symptoms of left ventricular dysfunction and in other settings, but the relevance of these peptides to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general populations or in patients with stable vascular disease is uncertain. Data were collated from 40 long-term prospective studies involving a total of 87 474 participants and 10 625 incident CVD outcomes. In a comparison of individuals in the top third with those in the bottom third of baseline values of natriuretic peptides, the combined risk ratio (RR), adjusted for several conventional risk factors, was 2.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.40 to 3.33) for CVD. Analysis of the 6 studies with at least 250 CVD outcomes (which should be less prone to selective reporting than are smaller studies) yielded an adjusted RR of 1.94 (95% CI, 1.57 to 2.39). RRs were broadly similar with BNP or NT-proBNP (RR, 2.89 [95% CI, 1.91 to 4.38] and 2.82 [95% CI, 2.35 to 3.38], respectively) and by different baseline vascular risk (RR, 2.68 [95% CI, 2.07 to 3.47] in approximately general populations; RR, 3.35 [95% CI, 2.38 to 4.72] in people with elevated vascular risk factors; RR, 2.60 [95% CI, 1.99 to 3.38] in patients with stable CVD). Assay of BNP or NT-proBNP in addition to measurement of conventional CVD risk factors yielded generally modest improvements in risk discrimination. Available prospective studies indicate strong associations between circulating concentration of natriuretic peptides and CVD risk under a range of different circumstances. Further investigation is warranted, particularly in large general population studies, to clarify any predictive utility of these markers and to better control for publication bias.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-042X
                09 July 2020
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                1Department of Biomedical Sciences, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine , Old Westbury, NY, United States
                2Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Gaetano Santulli, Columbia University, United States

                Reviewed by: Evelyn Heymann Schlenker, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, United States; Annarita Di Lorenzo, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, United States; Larissa C. Faustino, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States

                *Correspondence: Yi-Da Tang, tangyida@ 123456fuwaihospital.org
                Anthony Martin Gerdes, agerdes@ 123456nyit.edu

                This article was submitted to Clinical and Translational Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2020.00729
                7363952
                Copyright © 2020 Wang, Ojamaa, Samuels, Gilani, Zhang, An, Zhang, Tang, Askari and Gerdes.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 55, Pages: 12, Words: 0
                Categories
                Physiology
                Original Research

                Anatomy & Physiology

                bnp, thyroid hormones, t3, hypothyroidism, heart failure, gene expression

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