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      DNA barcoding for species delimitation of the freshwater leech genus Glossiphonia from the Western Balkan (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae)

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          Abstract

          Glossiphoniid leeches are a diverse group and sometimes abundant elements of the aquatic fauna inhabiting various types of freshwater habitats. In this study, we sampled leeches of the genus Glossiphonia from the Western Balkan in order to test the suitability of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) marker sequence for species delimitation. Morphological analysis revealed the presence of four taxa, G. complanata with two subspecies, G. c. complanata and G. c. maculosa , the latter an endemic of Ohrid Lake, G. nebulosa and endemic G. balcanica . In total, 29 new barcodes of Glossiphonia were sequenced in the course of this study and compared with the available molecular dataset of the latter genus from GenBank/BOLD databases. The applied ASAP distance-based species delimitation method for the analysed dataset revealed an interspecific threshold between 4-8% K2P distance as suitable for species identification purposes of the Western Balkan Glossiphonia species. Our study revealed that morphologically identified taxa as G. nebulosa and G. concolor each consists of more than one clearly different phylogenetic clade. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the taxonomy of glossiphoniid leeches and emphasises future work on the revision of this genus using a standard molecular COI marker in species identification.

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          Most cited references 35

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

            Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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              The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.

               N Saitou,  M Nei (1988)
              A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2021
                15 September 2021
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Džordža Vašingtona bb, 81000, Podgorica, Montenegro Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Džordža Vašingtona bb, 81000 Podgorica Montenegro
                [2 ] Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna Austria
                [3 ] Central Research Laboratories, Natural History Museum Vienna, Burgring 7, 1010, Vienna, Austria Central Research Laboratories, Natural History Museum Vienna, Burgring 7, 1010 Vienna Austria
                [4 ] 3rd Zoological Department, Natural History Museum Vienna, Burgring 7, Vienna, Austria 3rd Zoological Department, Natural History Museum Vienna, Burgring 7 Vienna Austria
                [5 ] 4 Bernd-Blindow-Schule Leipzig, Comeniusstraße 17, 04315, Leipzig, Germany 4 Bernd-Blindow-Schule Leipzig, Comeniusstraße 17, 04315 Leipzig Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Milica Jovanović ( milicaj@ 123456ucg.ac.me ).

                Academic editor: Yasen Mutafchiev

                Article
                66347 16653
                10.3897/BDJ.9.e66347
                8458266
                Milica Jovanović, Elisabeth Haring, Helmut Sattmann, Clemens Grosser, Vladimir Pesic

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 34
                Categories
                Research Article

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