Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Precision Spine Care: A New Era of Discovery, Innovation, and Global Impact

, DSc, , PhD, , MD, , MD, PhD, , MS, FRCS, MCh, PhD, , MD, PhD, , MD, , MD, PhD

Global Spine Journal

SAGE Publications

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 12

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

      Summary Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57·6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40·8–75·9 million [7·2%, 6·0–8·3]), 45·1 million (29·0–62·8 million [5·6%, 4·0–7·2]), 36·3 million (25·3–50·9 million [4·5%, 3·8–5·3]), 34·7 million (23·0–49·6 million [4·3%, 3·5–5·2]), and 34·1 million (23·5–46·0 million [4·2%, 3·2–5·3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2·7% (95% UI 2·3–3·1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10·4% (95% UI 9·0–11·8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862–11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018–19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-to-date information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        A systematic review of low back pain cost of illness studies in the United States and internationally.

        The economic burden of low back pain (LBP) is very large and appears to be growing. It is not possible to impact this burden without understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the research on which these costs are calculated. To conduct a systematic review of LBP cost of illness studies in the United States and internationally. Systematic review of the literature. Medline was searched to uncover studies about the direct or indirect costs of LBP published in English from 1997 to 2007. Data extracted for each eligible study included study design, population, definition of LBP, methods of estimating costs, year of data, and estimates of direct, indirect, or total costs. Results were synthesized descriptively. The search yielded 147 studies, of which 21 were deemed relevant; 4 other studies and 2 additional abstracts were found by searching reference lists, bringing the total to 27 relevant studies. The studies reported on data from Australia, Belgium, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK, and the United States. Nine studies estimated direct costs only, nine indirect costs only, and nine both direct and indirect costs, from a societal (n=18) or private insurer (n=9) perspective. Methodology used to derive both direct and indirect cost estimates differed markedly among the studies. Among studies providing a breakdown on direct costs, the largest proportion of direct medical costs for LBP was spent on physical therapy (17%) and inpatient services (17%), followed by pharmacy (13%) and primary care (13%). Among studies providing estimates of total costs, indirect costs resulting from lost work productivity represented a majority of overall costs associated with LBP. Three studies reported that estimates with the friction period approach were 56% lower than with the human capital approach. Several studies have attempted to estimate the direct, indirect, or total costs associated with LBP in various countries using heterogeneous methodology. Estimates of the economic costs in different countries vary greatly depending on study methodology but by any standards must be considered a substantial burden on society. This review did not identify any studies estimating the total costs of LBP in the United States from a societal perspective. Such studies may be helpful in determining appropriate allocation of health-care resources devoted to this condition.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Systematic literature review of imaging features of spinal degeneration in asymptomatic populations.

          Degenerative changes are commonly found in spine imaging but often occur in pain-free individuals as well as those with back pain. We sought to estimate the prevalence, by age, of common degenerative spine conditions by performing a systematic review studying the prevalence of spine degeneration on imaging in asymptomatic individuals.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
            AO Research Institute, Davos, Switzerland
            Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
            Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland;
            Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland
            Ganga Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
            Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil
            University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
            Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands
            Contributors
            Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
            AO Research Institute, Davos, Switzerland
            Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
            Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland;
            ,
            Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland
            Ganga Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
            Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil
            University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
            Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands
            Journal
            Global Spine J
            Global Spine J
            GSJ
            spgsj
            Global Spine Journal
            SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
            2192-5682
            2192-5690
            15 June 2018
            June 2018
            : 8
            : 4
            : 321-322
            6022953
            10.1177/2192568218774044
            10.1177_2192568218774044
            © The Author(s) 2018

            This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work as published without adaptation or alteration, without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

            Categories
            Editorial

            Comments

            Comment on this article