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      p-Aminobenzoate Organic Salts as Potential Plant Growth Regulators for Tomatoes

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          Abstract

          The discovery of environmentally friendly and inexpensive plant growth regulators (PGRs) for agronomically important crops is a necessity and must be considered a priority worldwide. This study provides the synthesis, structure determination and the biological evaluation of two binary organic salts as potential PGRs. New compounds have dual biological activity and are based on natural metabolite p-aminobenzoic acid ( pABAH) and different alkanolamines. Studied compounds exhibit hydrogen-bonded 3D supramolecular architectures with different crystal packing due to the formation of one homosynthon and various heterosynthons. The biological profile of new compounds was investigated in laboratory and greenhouse on Solanum lycopersicum L., revealing the efficiency in promoting plant rooting and plant productivity. The results may have a positive impact on agricultural economics, developing new sustainable PGRs for tomatoes.

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          Most cited references54

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          Mercury: visualization and analysis of crystal structures

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            ROS-related redox regulation and signaling in plants.

            As sessile oxygenic organisms with a plastic developmental programme, plants are uniquely positioned to exploit reactive oxygen species (ROS) as powerful signals. Plants harbor numerous ROS-generating pathways, and these oxidants and related redox-active compounds have become tightly embedded into plant function and development during the course of evolution. One dominant view of ROS-removing systems sees them as beneficial antioxidants battling to keep damaging ROS below dangerous levels. However, it is now established that ROS are a necessary part of subcellular and intercellular communication in plants and that some of their signaling functions require ROS-metabolizing systems. For these reasons, it is suggested that "ROS processing systems" would be a more accurate term than "antioxidative systems" to describe cellular components that are most likely to interact with ROS and, in doing so, transmit oxidative signals. Within this framework, our update provides an overview of the complexity and compartmentation of ROS production and removal. We place particular emphasis on the importance of ROS-interacting systems such as the complex cellular thiol network in the redox regulation of phytohormone signaling pathways that are crucial for plant development and defense against external threats.
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              Auxin controls seed dormancy through stimulation of abscisic acid signaling by inducing ARF-mediated ABI3 activation in Arabidopsis.

              The transition from dormancy to germination in seeds is a key physiological process during the lifecycle of plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the sole plant hormone known to maintain seed dormancy; it acts through a gene expression network involving the transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3). However, whether other phytohormone pathways function in the maintenance of seed dormancy in response to environmental and internal signals remains an important question. Here, we show that the plant growth hormone auxin, which acts as a versatile trigger in many developmental processes, also plays a critical role in seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. We show that disruptions in auxin signaling in MIR160-overexpressing plants, auxin receptor mutants, or auxin biosynthesis mutants dramatically release seed dormancy, whereas increases in auxin signaling or biosynthesis greatly enhance seed dormancy. Auxin action in seed dormancy requires the ABA signaling pathway (and vice versa), indicating that the roles of auxin and ABA in seed dormancy are interdependent. Furthermore, we show that auxin acts upstream of the major regulator of seed dormancy, ABI3, by recruiting the auxin response factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 10 and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 16 to control the expression of ABI3 during seed germination. Our study, thus, uncovers a previously unrecognized regulatory factor of seed dormancy and a coordinating network of auxin and ABA signaling in this important process.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                02 April 2020
                April 2020
                : 25
                : 7
                : 1635
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Horticulture and Forestry, Banat′s University of Agriculture Science and Veterinary Medicine “King Michael Ist of Romania” from Timisoara, Calea Aradului nr 119, 300645, Timisoara, Romania; sumalanagro@ 123456yahoo.com (R.-L.S.); isidoraradulov@ 123456yahoo.com (I.R.); srenata_maria@ 123456yahoo.com (R.-M.S.)
                [2 ]“Coriolan Dragulescu” Institute of Chemistry, 24 Mihai Viteazul Blvd., 300223, Timisoara, Romania; croitor.lilia@ 123456gmail.com (L.C.); mihaelapetric@ 123456yahoo.com (M.P.)
                [3 ]Institute of Applied Physics, Academiei Street 5, MD2028, Chisinau, Moldova; bourosh.xray@ 123456phys.asm.md
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mdorosencu@ 123456yahoo.com ; Tel.: +40-256-491818
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5252-8921
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0757-7358
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6352-4344
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7067-5818
                Article
                molecules-25-01635
                10.3390/molecules25071635
                7180871
                32252303
                8f6b937b-2ec4-43f7-9c54-4736326d8fc4
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 14 March 2020
                : 31 March 2020
                Categories
                Article

                p-aminobenzoic acid,alkanolammonium salt,biological activity,plant growth regulator,crystal structure,supramolecular assembly

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