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      Emodin Protects Against Acute Pancreatitis-Associated Lung Injury by Inhibiting NLPR3 Inflammasome Activation via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling

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          Abstract

          Aim

          Lung injury is a common complication of acute pancreatitis (AP), which leads to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and causes high mortality. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of emodin on AP-induced lung injury and explored the molecular mechanisms involved.

          Materials and Methods

          Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into AP (n=24) and normal (n=6) groups. Rats in the AP group received a retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliary-pancreatic duct and then randomly assigned to untreated, emodin, combined emodin and ML385, and dexamethasone (DEX) groups. Pancreatic and pulmonary injury was assessed using H&E staining. In in vitro study, rat alveolar epithelial cell line L2 cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide and treated with emodin. Nrf2 siRNA pool was applied for the knockdown of Nrf2. The contents of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of related mRNAs and proteins in the lung or L2 cells were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.

          Key Findings

          Emodin administration alleviated pancreatic and pulmonary injury of rats with AP. Emodin administration suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, downregulated NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 expressions and inhibited NF-κB nuclear accumulation in the lung. In addition, Emodin increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and upregulated HO-1 expression. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect of emodin was blocked by Nrf2 inhibitor ML385.

          Conclusion

          Emodin effectively protects rats against AP-associated lung injury by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Recent advances in the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its inhibitors

          The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex that initiates an inflammatory form of cell death and triggers the release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Prion diseases, type 2 diabetes, and some infectious diseases. It has been found that a variety of stimuli including danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, such as silica and uric acid crystals) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) can activate NLRP3 inflammasome, but the specific regulatory mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation remain unclear. Understanding the mechanisms of NLRP3 activation will enable the development of its specific inhibitors to treat NLRP3-related diseases. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as inhibitors that specifically and directly target NLRP3.
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            Nrf2 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation through regulating Trx1/TXNIP complex in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.

            The nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has a critical role in inflammation damage in ischemic injury, and the activation of the inflammasome is closely related to the interaction with thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), which dissociates from the thioredoxin1 (Trx1)/TXNIP complex under oxidative stress. However, the negative regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation has not been fully investigated. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) takes on a critical part in the antioxidant stress system, that controls the driven genes of antioxidant response element (ARE). Activate Nrf2 could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in acute liver injury and severe lupus nephritis. We aimed to explore the protective effect of Nrf2 in inhibiting the NLPR3 inflammasome formulation through the Trx1/TXNIP complex in cerebral ischemia reperfusion (cerebral I/R) injury. Middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model was used to imitate ischemic insult. Nrf2 was activated by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) injection (16.7mg/kg), Nrf2,Trx1 and NLRP3 siRNAs were infused into the left paracele (12μl per rat), protein and mRNA levels were assessed by Western blot, qRT-PCR. ELISA was used for IL-1β and IL-18 activity measurements. After upregulating Nrf2, the expression of TXNIP in cytoplasm, NLRP3 inflammasome, and downstream factors caspase-1, IL-18, and IL-1β were significantly reduced, and Nrf2 knockdown yielded the opposite results. Trx1 knockdown produced the same effect of Nrf2 inhibition and the protective effect of Nrf2 was mostly abolished. Our results suggested that Nrf2 acted as a protective regulator against NLRP3 inflammasome activation by regulating the Trx1/TXNIP complex, which could possibly represent an innovative insight into the treatment of ischemia and reperfusion injury.
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              NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation-Mediated Pyroptosis Aggravates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

              The reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) induced nod-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome triggers sterile inflammatory responses and pyroptosis, which is a proinflammatory form of programmed cell death initiated by the activation of inflammatory caspases. NLRP3 inflammasome activation plays an important role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Our present study investigated whether diabetes aggravated MI/R injury through NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis. Type 1 diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). MI/R was induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 minutes followed by 2 h reperfusion. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to high glucose (HG, 30 mM) conditions and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) stimulation. The myocardial infarct size, CK-MB, and LDH release in the diabetic rats subjected to MI/R were significantly higher than those in the nondiabetic rats, accompanied with increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and increased pyroptosis. Inhibition of inflammasome activation with BAY11-7082 significantly decreased the MI/R injury. In vitro studies showed similar effects, as BAY11-7082 or the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine, attenuated HG and H/R-induced H9C2 cell injury. In conclusion, hyperglycaemia-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation may be a ROS-dependent process in pyroptotic cell death, and NLRP3 inflammasome-induced pyroptosis aggravates MI/R injury in diabetic rats.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                21 May 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 1971-1982
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University , Dalian, Liaoning 116027, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of International Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University , Dalian, Liaoning 116027, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhenming Gao; Rong Fan Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University ; Department of International Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University , 467 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, Liaoning116027, People’s Republic of China Email gaozhenmingdl@163.com;fanrongdl@126.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                247103
                10.2147/DDDT.S247103
                7247729
                32546964
                © 2020 Gao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 39, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

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