As one of the potential energy crops, Arundo donax Linn. is a renewable source for the production of biofuels and bioproducts. In the present study, milled wood lignin (MWL) and alkaline lignin (AL) from stems and foliage of A. donax were isolated and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, GPC, ³¹P NMR, 2D HSQC NMR, and DFRC. The results indicated that both stem and foliage lignins were HGS type lignins. The semiquantitative HSQC spectra analysis demonstrated a predominance of β-O-4' aryl ether linkages (71-82%), followed by β-β', β-5', β-1', and α,β-diaryl ethers linkages in the lignins. Compared to stem lignins, foliage lignins had less β-O-4' alkyl-aryl ethers, lower weight-average molecular weight, less phenolic OH, more H units, and lower S/G ratio. Moreover, tricin was found to incorporate into the foliage lignins (higher content of condensed G units) in significant amounts and might be alkaline-stable.