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      Erector spinae plane block for postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a case report

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          Abstract

          The Erector Spinae Plane Block (ESP) is a novel regional technique for anesthesia or analgesia. Originally the ESP block was described in 2016 in a case report regarding analgesia intervention for a case of thoracic neuropathic pain. Since then, there has been growing interest and research adding experience about the ESP block as regional anesthetic and analgesic technique. Reviewing the literature about this novel technique in databases like PubMed using the key words “erector spinae plane block” returns approximately 56 publications. So far there is no available big series of cases or reviews regarding the ESP block. The literature is limited to case reports or case series. With the present case we are interested in exploring the efficacy of ESP block as a postoperative analgesic method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We describe the case of a 76-year-old female patient scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Written informed consent was granted (for procedure and publication of photos). We applied a bilateral ultrasound-guided ESP block at T 6 level while the patient was awake before general anesthesia induction. The anesthetic solution we used consisted of 12 mL Ropivacaine 0.375% plus 2 mg dexamethasone (on each side). After the successful administration of the block (observation of the solution spread between transverse process and the erector spinae muscles), general anesthesia was induced and the procedure was started. Procedure and recovery was uneventful with the patient experiencing very good analgesia (NRS pain score 0 up to 6 hours after block placement). The patient presented mild pain (NRS score of 2–3) after 6 hours and requested the “on demand” pain medication (1 g paracetamol IV) only 10 hours after the ESP block (NRS pain score of 4–5). The patient experienced no nausea or vomiting, was mobilized easily about 6 hours after the block and was discharged the next day. This relatively simple and safe block dramatically reduced the amount of IV pain medication we usually administer for the specific procedure. The overall result was increased satisfaction of the patient and avoidance of opioid use.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Effects of dexamethasone as a local anaesthetic adjuvant for brachial plexus block: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

          Brachial plexus nerve blocks (BPBs) have analgesic and opioid sparing benefits for upper extremity surgery. Single-injection techniques are limited by the pharmacological duration and therapeutic index of local anaesthetics (LAs). Continuous catheter techniques, while effective can present management challenges. Off-label use of perineural dexamethasone as an LA adjuvant has been utilized to prolong single-injection techniques. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to assess the contemporary literature and quantify the effects of dexamethasone on BPB. The authors searched for randomized, placebo-controlled trials that compared BPB performed with LA alone with that performed with LA and perineural dexamethasone. Meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model with subgroup analysis stratified by LA (long vs intermediate). The primary outcome was duration of sensory block or analgesia; the secondary outcomes were motor block duration, opioid consumption, and BPB complications. Nine trials (801 patients) were included with 393 patients receiving dexamethasone (4-10 mg). Dexamethasone prolonged the analgesic duration for long-acting LA from 730 to 1306 min [mean difference 576 min, 95% confidence interval (CI) 522-631] and for intermediate from 168 to 343 min (mean 175, 95% CI 73-277). Motor block was prolonged from 664 to 1102 min (mean 438, 95% CI 89-787). The most recent trial demonstrated equivalent prolongation with perineural or systemic administration of dexamethasone compared with placebo. Perineural administration of dexamethasone with LA prolongs BPB effects with no observed adverse events. The effects of systemic administration of dexamethasone on BPB must be investigated.
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            Analgesic treatment after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a critical assessment of the evidence.

             Thue Bisgaard (2006)
            Acute pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is complex in nature. The pain pattern does not resemble pain after other laparoscopic procedures, suggesting that analgesic treatment might be procedure specific and multimodal. Randomized trials of analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were identified by systematic electronic literature searches (1985 to June 2005) supplemented with manual searching. The trials were categorized by well-defined criteria into high, moderate, or poor methodologic quality. Conclusions were based on trials of high and moderate methodologic quality. In total, 64 randomized analgesic trials were identified, comprising a total of 5,018 evaluated patients. The literature suggests a multimodal analgesic regimen consisting of a preoperative single dose of dexamethasone, incisional local anesthetics (at the beginning or at the end of surgery, depending on preference), and continuous treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (or cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors) during the first 3-4 days. Opioids should be used only when other analgesic techniques fail.
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              Erector spinae plane block as an alternative to epidural analgesia for post-operative analgesia following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: A case study and a literature review on the spread of local anaesthetic in the erector spinae plane

              Post-operative pain after minimally invasive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in adults is commonly managed with oral and parenteral opioids and invasive regional techniques such as thoracic epidural blockade. Emerging research has shown that the novel erector spinae plane (ESP) block, can be employed as a simple and safe alternative analgesic technique for acute post-surgical, post-traumatic and chronic neuropathic thoracic pain in adults. We illustrate this by presenting a paediatric case of VATS, in which an ESP block provided better analgesia, due to greater dermatomal coverage, as well as reduced side-effects when compared with a thoracic epidural that had previously been employed on the same patient for a similar procedure on the opposite side.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                24 September 2018
                : 11
                : 1983-1990
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Anesthesiology Department, Agios Dimitrios Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece, dpets_anesthesia@ 123456hotmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology Nursing, Agios Dimitrios Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
                [3 ]Department of Surgery, Agios Dimitrios Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dimosthenis Petsas, Anesthesiology Department, General Hospital “Agios Dimitrios”, Elenis Zografou 2, 54634, Thessaloniki, Greece, Tel: +30 231 332 2235, Email dpets_anesthesia@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                jpr-11-1983
                10.2147/JPR.S164489
                6163005
                © 2018 Petsas et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                postoperative analgesia, plane block, ultrasound

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