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      Revision and phylogenetic assessment of the rove beetle genus Pseudohesperus Hayashi, with broad reference to the subtribe Philonthina (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylinini) : PHYLOGENETIC ASSESSMENT OF PSEUDOHESPERUS

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      Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
      Wiley

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          Ice sheets promote speciation in boreal birds.

          The premise that Pleistocene ice ages played an important role in generating present-day species diversity has been challenged by genetic data indicating that most of the youngest terrestrial species on Earth coalesced long before major glacial advances. However, study has been biased towards faunas distributed at low latitudes that were not directly fragmented by advancing ice sheets. Using mitochondrial sequence divergence and a molecular clock, we compared the coalescence times of pairs of avian species belonging to superspecies complexes from the high-latitude boreal forest with those of sub-boreal and tropical avifaunas of the New World. Remarkably, all coalescence events in boreal superspecies date to the Pleistocene, providing direct evidence that speciation was commonly initiated during recent glacial periods. A pattern of endemism in boreal superspecies plausibly links the timing of divergence to the fragmentation of the boreal forest by ice sheets during the Mid- and Late Pleistocene. In contrast to the boreal superspecies, only 56% of sub-boreal and 46% of tropical superspecies members coalesced during the Pleistocene, suggesting that avifaunas directly fragmented by ice sheets experienced rapid rates of diversification, whereas those distributed farther south were affected to a lesser extent. One explanation for the absence of pre-Pleistocene superspecies in boreal avifaunas is that strong selection pressures operated in boreal refugia, causing superspecies members to achieve ecological differentiation at an accelerated rate.
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            New mitochondrial DNA data affirm the importance of Pleistocene speciation in North American birds.

            The timing of origin of modern North American bird species in relation to Pleistocene glaciations has long been the topic of significant discussion and disagreement. Recently, Klicka and Zink (1997) and Avise and Walker (1998) enlivened this debate by using calibrated molecular distance values to estimate timing of speciations. Here we use new molecular studies to test their conclusions. Molecular distance values for 39 pairs of proven sister species, 27 of which are based on new data, alter the currently perceived pattern that avian species splits occurred mainly in the Pliocene and early-mid-Pleistocene. Mitochondrial DNA divergence values for this set of taxa showed a skewed distribution pointing toward relatively young speciation times, in contrast to the pattern presented by Klicka and Zink (1997) for 35 sister plus non-sister species pairs. Our pattern was not significantly different from that of Avise and Walker (1998) for "intraspecific phylogroups," some of which are species. We conclude that the entire Pleistocene, including the last two glacial cycles (<250,000 years ago), was important in speciations of modern North American birds. A substantial number of speciations were both initiated and completed in the last 250,000 years. Simultaneously, many taxa began to diverge in the Pleistocene but their speciations are not yet complete (per Avise and Walker 1998). The suggestion that durations of speciations average two million years is probably a substantial overestimate.
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              Molecular phylogeny of the mega-diverse rove beetle tribe Staphylinini (Insecta, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
                Wiley
                00244082
                November 2011
                November 2011
                October 25 2011
                : 163
                : 3
                : 679-722
                Article
                10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00731.x
                8f83815a-b732-4583-ad93-8d44f369fcf3
                © 2011

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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