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      Kindlin-3–mediated integrin adhesion is dispensable for quiescent but essential for activated hematopoietic stem cells

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          Abstract

          Ruppert et al. report that Kindlin-3–mediated integrin activation controls homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to the bone marrow (BM) and the retention of activated, but not quiescent, HSCs in the BM niche.

          Abstract

          Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate highly dividing hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), which produce all blood cell lineages. HSCs are usually quiescent, retained by integrins in specific niches, and become activated when the pools of HPCs decrease. We report that Kindlin-3–mediated integrin activation controls homing of HSCs to the bone marrow (BM) and the retention of activated HSCs and HPCs but not of quiescent HSCs in their BM niches. Consequently, Kindlin-3–deficient HSCs enter quiescence and remain in the BM when cotransplanted with wild-type hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), whereas they are hyperactivated and lost in the circulation when wild-type HSPCs are absent, leading to their exhaustion and reduced survival of recipients. The accumulation of HSPCs in the circulation of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type III patients, who lack Kindlin-3, underlines the conserved functions of Kindlin-3 in man and the importance of our findings for human disease.

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          Most cited references 36

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          IFNalpha activates dormant haematopoietic stem cells in vivo.

          Maintenance of the blood system is dependent on dormant haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with long-term self-renewal capacity. After injury these cells are induced to proliferate to quickly re-establish homeostasis. The signalling molecules promoting the exit of HSCs out of the dormant stage remain largely unknown. Here we show that in response to treatment of mice with interferon-alpha (IFNalpha), HSCs efficiently exit G(0) and enter an active cell cycle. HSCs respond to IFNalpha treatment by the increased phosphorylation of STAT1 and PKB/Akt (also known as AKT1), the expression of IFNalpha target genes, and the upregulation of stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1, also known as LY6A). HSCs lacking the IFNalpha/beta receptor (IFNAR), STAT1 (ref. 3) or Sca-1 (ref. 4) are insensitive to IFNalpha stimulation, demonstrating that STAT1 and Sca-1 mediate IFNalpha-induced HSC proliferation. Although dormant HSCs are resistant to the anti-proliferative chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluoro-uracil, HSCs pre-treated (primed) with IFNalpha and thus induced to proliferate are efficiently eliminated by 5-fluoro-uracil exposure in vivo. Conversely, HSCs chronically activated by IFNalpha are functionally compromised and are rapidly out-competed by non-activatable Ifnar(-/-) cells in competitive repopulation assays. Whereas chronic activation of the IFNalpha pathway in HSCs impairs their function, acute IFNalpha treatment promotes the proliferation of dormant HSCs in vivo. These data may help to clarify the so far unexplained clinical effects of IFNalpha on leukaemic cells, and raise the possibility for new applications of type I interferons to target cancer stem cells.
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            The final steps of integrin activation: the end game.

            Cell-directed changes in the ligand-binding affinity ('activation') of integrins regulate cell adhesion and migration, extracellular matrix assembly and mechanotransduction, thereby contributing to embryonic development and diseases such as atherothrombosis and cancer. Integrin activation comprises triggering events, intermediate signalling events and, finally, the interaction of integrins with cytoplasmic regulators, which changes an integrin's affinity for its ligands. The first two events involve diverse interacting signalling pathways, whereas the final steps are immediately proximal to integrins, thus enabling integrin-focused therapeutic strategies. Recent progress provides insight into the structure of integrin transmembrane domains, and reveals how the final steps of integrin activation are mediated by integrin-binding proteins such as talins and kindlins.
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              Bone-marrow haematopoietic-stem-cell niches.

              Adult stem cells hold many promises for future clinical applications and regenerative medicine. The haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is the best-characterized somatic stem cell so far, but in vitro expansion has been unsuccessful, limiting the future therapeutic potential of these cells. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the composition of the HSC bone-marrow microenvironment, known as the HSC niche. During homeostasis, HSCs, and therefore putative bone-marrow HSC niches, are located near bone surfaces or are associated with the sinusoidal endothelium. The molecular crosstalk between HSCs and the cellular constituents of these niches is thought to control the balance between HSC self-renewal and differentiation, indicating that future successful expansion of HSCs for therapeutic use will require three-dimensional reconstruction of a stem-cell-niche unit.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                jem
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                24 August 2015
                : 212
                : 9
                : 1415-1432
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Medicine, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
                [2 ]Walter Brendel Center of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig Maximilian University, 80539 Munich, Germany
                [3 ]Medical Clinic and Policlinic I, Klinikum der Universität, 80336 Munich, Germany
                [4 ]Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
                [5 ]Third Department of Internal Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität, 80337 Munich, Germany
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE Reinhard Fässler: faessler@ 123456biochem.mpg.de
                Article
                20150269
                10.1084/jem.20150269
                4548061
                26282877
                © 2015 Ruppert et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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