Background: Chronic renal failure is characterized by specific alterations of the lipoprotein metabolism. It is also characterized by elevated plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy). Hyperhomocysteinemia has been shown to be a risk factor for atherosclerosis in both the general population and in patients with end-stage renal disease. Aim: To analyze whether elevated tHcy levels also may contribute to a higher rate of progression of renal insufficiency in patients with moderately advanced renal failure. Methods: To investigate whether tHcy concentrations are associated with an accelerated rate of progression of renal insufficiency, we have correlated baseline plasma concentrations of tHcy with the progressive decline of renal function in an observational study of human chronic renal disease. Results: Sixty-three nondiabetic patients (49 men, 14 women) were studied as part of an observational study of patients with moderately advanced renal insufficiency. The average follow-up time of the patient population was 3.0 years, and the mean rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate (<sup>51</sup>Cr- EDTA clearance) was –3.2 ± (SD) 3.9 ml/min × 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> body surface area. The mean plasma concentration of tHcy at the beginning of the study was 28.3 ± 12.0 µmol/l. Plasma tHcy concentrations correlated significantly with the glomerular filtration rate (r = –0.32, p < 0.01). However, there was no association between the initial plasma level of tHcy and the rate of progression as assessed by linear regression analysis (r = 0.02; NS). In contrast, increased levels of apolipoprotein B, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and proteinuria were all significantly associated with a more rapid decline in renal function. Conclusions: Patients with moderately advanced chronic renal insufficiency have elevated plasma levels of homocysteine. The tHcy plasma levels increase in parallel with the degree of reduction in renal function. However, the hyperhomocysteinemia is not prospectively associated with a higher rate of progression of the renal functional impairment. Hence, there is no indication that elevated homocysteine levels play a contributing role for an accelerated glomerulosclerotic process.