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      S-Allylmercaptocysteine Targets Nrf2 in Osteoarthritis Treatment Through NOX4/NF-κB Pathway


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          This study aimed to explore the potential role and mechanism of garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), the major water-soluble fraction of garlic, in osteoarthritis (OA) both in vivo and in vitro.


          The effect of SAMC in a surgical-induced OA model was examined by X-ray, staining, ELISA, and immunoblotting. Then the key role of Nrf2 by SAMC treatment in IL-1β stimulated chondrocytes in vitro was determined by gene-knockdown technique.


          SAMC could stabilize the extracellular matrix (ECM) by decreasing metalloproteinase (MMPs) expression to suppress type II collagen degradation in OA rats. The inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, were elevated in OA, which could be down-regulated by SAMC treatment. This effect was parallel with NF-κB signaling inhibition by SAMC. As oxidative stress has been shown to participate in the inflammatory pathways in OA conditions, the key regulator Nrf2 in redox-homeostasis was evaluated in SAMC-treated OA rats. Nrf2 and its down-stream gene NQO-1 were activated in the SAMC-treated group, accompanied by NAD(P)H oxidases 4 (NOX4) expression down-regulated. As a result, the toxic lipid peroxidation byproduct 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) was reduced in articular cartilage. In IL-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes, which could mimic OA in vitro, SAMC could ameliorate collagen destruction, inhibit inflammation, and maintain redox-homeostasis. Interestingly, after Nrf2 gene knockdown by adenovirus, the protective effect of SAMC in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes disappeared.


          Overall, our study demonstrated that SAMC targeted Nrf2 to protect OA both in vivo and in vitro, which would be a new pharmaceutical way for OA therapy.

          Most cited references34

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          Nrf2 signaling pathway: Pivotal roles in inflammation.

          Inflammation is the most common feature of many chronic diseases and complications, while playing critical roles in carcinogenesis. Several studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 contributes to the anti-inflammatory process by orchestrating the recruitment of inflammatory cells and regulating gene expression through the antioxidant response element (ARE). The Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein)/Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2)/ARE signaling pathway mainly regulates anti-inflammatory gene expression and inhibits the progression of inflammation. Therefore, the identification of new Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory phytochemicals has become a key point in drug discovery. In this review, we discuss the members of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signal pathway and its downstream genes, the effects of this pathway on animal models of inflammatory diseases, and crosstalk with the NF-κB pathway. In addition we also discuss about the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by Nrf2. Besides this, we summarize the current scenario of the development of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and others that mediate the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.
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            Reversal of persistent fibrosis in aging by targeting Nox4-Nrf2 redox imbalance.

            The incidence and prevalence of pathological fibrosis increase with advancing age, although mechanisms for this association are unclear. We assessed the capacity for repair of lung injury in young (2 months) and aged (18 months) mice. Whereas the severity of fibrosis was not different between these groups, aged mice demonstrated an impaired capacity for fibrosis resolution. Persistent fibrosis in lungs of aged mice was characterized by the accumulation of senescent and apoptosis-resistant myofibroblasts. These cellular phenotypes were sustained by alterations in cellular redox homeostasis resulting from elevated expression of the reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme Nox4 [NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase-4] and an impaired capacity to induce the Nrf2 (NFE2-related factor 2) antioxidant response. Lung tissues from human subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive and fatal lung disease, also demonstrated this Nox4-Nrf2 imbalance. Nox4 mediated senescence and apoptosis resistance in IPF fibroblasts. Genetic and pharmacological targeting of Nox4 in aged mice with established fibrosis attenuated the senescent, antiapoptotic myofibroblast phenotype and led to a reversal of persistent fibrosis. These studies suggest that loss of cellular redox homeostasis promotes profibrotic myofibroblast phenotypes that result in persistent fibrosis associated with aging. Our studies suggest that restoration of Nox4-Nrf2 redox balance in myofibroblasts may be a therapeutic strategy in age-associated fibrotic disorders, potentially able to resolve persistent fibrosis or even reverse its progression.
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              The OARSI histopathology initiative - recommendations for histological assessments of osteoarthritis in the rat.

              During the development of disease-modifying osteoarthritis (OA) drugs, rat models of OA are frequently used for a first assessment of in vivo efficacy. The most efficacious compound in the rat model may then be tested in a larger animal model before entering human trials. The aim of this study was to describe a histologic scoring system for use in different models of OA in rats that allows standardization and comparison of results obtained by different investigators. The experience of the authors with current scoring systems and the range of lesions observed in rat and human OA studies were considered in recommending this common paradigm for rat histologic scoring. Considerations were made for reproducibility and ease of use for new scorers. Additional scoring paradigms may be employed to further identify specific effects of some disease-modifying drugs. Although the described scoring system is more complex than the modified Mankin scores, which are recommended for some other species, the reliability study showed that it is easily understood and can be reproducibly used, even by inexperienced scorers. The scoring paradigm described here has been found to be sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between treatments and to have high reproducibility. Therefore we recommend its use for evaluation of different rat OA models as well as assessment of disease-modifying effects of treatments in these models. Copyright © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                28 October 2020
                : 14
                : 4533-4546
                [1 ]Department of Joint Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University , Jinan 250021, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University , Jinan 250012, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Siying Li Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University , No. 44, Wenhua West Road, Jinan250012, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-186 5319 8899 Email lisiying@sdu.edu.cn
                Guang Yang Email mayayangguang@163.com
                © 2020 Yang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 20 April 2020
                : 07 October 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 3, References: 34, Pages: 14
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China (81800353), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation;
                This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81800353), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019M662369).
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                s-allylmercaptocysteine,nrf2,osteoarthritis,oxidative stress,inflammation


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