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The Remarkable Amphoteric Nature of Defective UiO‐66 in Catalytic Reactions

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      One of the major requirements in solid acid and base catalyzed reactions is that the reactants, intermediates or activated complexes cooperate with several functions of catalyst support. In this work the remarkable bifunctional behavior of the defective UiO‐66(Zr) metal organic framework is shown for acid‐base pair catalysis. The active site relies on the presence of coordinatively unsaturated zirconium sites, which may be tuned by removing framework linkers and by removal of water from the inorganic bricks using a dehydration treatment. To elucidate the amphoteric nature of defective UiO‐66, the Oppenauer oxidation of primary alcohols has been theoretically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and the periodic approach. The presence of acid and basic centers within molecular distances is shown to be crucial for determining the catalytic activity of the material. Hydrated and dehydrated bricks have a distinct influence on the acidity and basicity of the active sites. In any case both functions need to cooperate in a concerted way to enable the chemical transformation. Experimental results on UiO‐66 materials of different defectivity support the theoretical observations made in this work.

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          A new zirconium inorganic building brick forming metal organic frameworks with exceptional stability.

          Porous crystals are strategic materials with industrial applications within petrochemistry, catalysis, gas storage, and selective separation. Their unique properties are based on the molecular-scale porous character. However, a principal limitation of zeolites and similar oxide-based materials is the relatively small size of the pores, typically in the range of medium-sized molecules, limiting their use in pharmaceutical and fine chemical applications. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) provided a breakthrough in this respect. New MOFs appear at a high and an increasing pace, but the appearances of new, stable inorganic building bricks are rare. Here we present a new zirconium-based inorganic building brick that allows the synthesis of very high surface area MOFs with unprecedented stability. The high stability is based on the combination of strong Zr-O bonds and the ability of the inner Zr6-cluster to rearrange reversibly upon removal or addition of mu3-OH groups, without any changes in the connecting carboxylates. The weak thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of most MOFs is probably the most important property that limits their use in large scale industrial applications. The Zr-MOFs presented in this work have the toughness needed for industrial applications; decomposition temperature above 500 degrees C and resistance to most chemicals, and they remain crystalline even after exposure to 10 tons/cm2 of external pressure.

            Author and article information

            [ 1 ] Center for Molecular ModelingGhent University Technologiepark 903, B- 9052 ZwijnaardeBelgium
            [ 2 ] Centre for Surface Chemistry and CatalysisUniversity of Leuven, Leuven Chem&Tech Celestijnenlaan 200F P.O. Box 2461, B- 3001 LeuvenBelgium
            John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
            04 May 2017
            22 June 2017
            : 9
            : 12 , French Conference on Catalysis ( doiID: 10.1002/cctc.v9.12 )
            : 2203-2210
            5499726 10.1002/cctc.201601689 CCTC201601689
            © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

            This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

            Figures: 14, Tables: 2, References: 48, Pages: 8, Words: 0
            Funded by: European Research Council
            Award ID: 647755-DYNPOR
            Award ID: 641887
            Funded by: Federaal Wetenschapsbeleid
            Award ID: IAP/7/05
            Funded by: Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
            Award ID: 3G048612
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            June 22, 2017
            Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.1.2 mode:remove_FC converted:06.07.2017


            brønsted base site, catalysis, lewis acid site, dft, kinetics


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