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      Improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers: an intervention study in a Hospital in Guizhou Province, China


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          Hand hygiene (HH) is a critical component for controlling hospital-acquired infection (HAI). The present study was designed to develop an intervention approach to improve compliance with HH among healthcare workers in a hospital setting.


          The HH intervention study was conducted in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, China and organized by its Department of HAI Management. It was an observational, prospective, quasiexperimental (before-after intervention) study. The study was divided into two phases: the baseline phase and the intervention phase. The investigative team included clinical monitoring staff and infection control practitioners who received a series of instructions on HH compliance, monitoring skills, and measurement of the use of HH products.


          Based on 27,852 observations in a 17-month period, the rate of compliance with HH improved from 37.78% at baseline to 75.90% after intervention. Significant improvement in compliance and an increase in consumption of HH products was observed after intervention. The per patient-day consumption of alcohol-based hand rub products and handwash agents increased by 4.75 mL and 4.55 mL, respectively. The consumption of paper towels increased 3.41 sheets per patient-day. During the same period, the prevalence rate of HAI decreased 0.83%.


          This study demonstrates that a significant improvement in compliance with HH can be achieved through a systemic, multidimensional intervention approach involving all categories of healthcare workers in a hospital setting, which may result in a decrease of the HAI rate.

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          Role of hand hygiene in healthcare-associated infection prevention.

          Healthcare workers' hands are the most common vehicle for the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. Hand hygiene is the leading measure for preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance and reducing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), but healthcare worker compliance with optimal practices remains low in most settings. This paper reviews factors influencing hand hygiene compliance, the impact of hand hygiene promotion on healthcare-associated pathogen cross-transmission and infection rates, and challenging issues related to the universal adoption of alcohol-based hand rub as a critical system change for successful promotion. Available evidence highlights the fact that multimodal intervention strategies lead to improved hand hygiene and a reduction in HCAI. However, further research is needed to evaluate the relative efficacy of each strategy component and to identify the most successful interventions, particularly in settings with limited resources. The main objective of the First Global Patient Safety Challenge, launched by the World Health Organization (WHO), is to achieve an improvement in hand hygiene practices worldwide with the ultimate goal of promoting a strong patient safety culture. We also report considerations and solutions resulting from the implementation of the multimodal strategy proposed in the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care.
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            Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Infection Control Programme.

            Hand hygiene prevents cross infection in hospitals, but compliance with recommended instructions is commonly poor. We attempted to promote hand hygiene by implementing a hospital-wide programme, with special emphasis on bedside, alcohol-based hand disinfection. We measured nosocomial infections in parallel. We monitored the overall compliance with hand hygiene during routine patient care in a teaching hospital in Geneva, Switzerland, before and during implementation of a hand-hygiene campaign. Seven hospital-wide observational surveys were done twice yearly from December, 1994, to December, 1997. Secondary outcome measures were nosocomial infection rates, attack rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and consumption of handrub disinfectant. We observed more than 20,000 opportunities for hand hygiene. Compliance improved progressively from 48% in 1994, to 66% in 1997 (p<0.001). Although recourse to handwashing with soap and water remained stable, frequency of hand disinfection substantially increased during the study period (p<0.001). This result was unchanged after adjustment for known risk factors of poor adherence. Hand hygiene improved significantly among nurses and nursing assistants, but remained poor among doctors. During the same period, overall nosocomial infection decreased (prevalence of 16.9% in 1994 to 9.9% in 1998; p=0.04), MRSA transmission rates decreased (2.16 to 0.93 episodes per 10,000 patient-days; p<0.001), and the consumption of alcohol-based handrub solution increased from 3.5 to 15.4 L per 1000 patient-days between 1993 and 1998 (p<0.001). The campaign produced a sustained improvement in compliance with hand hygiene, coinciding with a reduction of nosocomial infections and MRSA transmission. The promotion of bedside, antiseptic handrubs largely contributed to the increase in compliance.
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              Hand hygiene among physicians: performance, beliefs, and perceptions.

              Physician adherence to hand hygiene remains low in most hospitals. To identify risk factors for nonadherence and assess beliefs and perceptions associated with hand hygiene among physicians. Cross-sectional survey of physician practices, beliefs, and attitudes toward hand hygiene. Large university hospital. 163 physicians. Individual observation of physician hand hygiene practices during routine patient care with documentation of relevant risk factors; self-report questionnaire to measure beliefs and perceptions. Logistic regression identified variables independently associated with adherence. Adherence averaged 57% and varied markedly across medical specialties. In multivariate analysis, adherence was associated with the awareness of being observed, the belief of being a role model for other colleagues, a positive attitude toward hand hygiene after patient contact, and easy access to hand-rub solution. Conversely, high workload, activities associated with a high risk for cross-transmission, and certain technical medical specialties (surgery, anesthesiology, emergency medicine, and intensive care medicine) were risk factors for nonadherence. Direct observation of physicians may have influenced both adherence to hand hygiene and responses to the self-report questionnaire. Generalizability of study results requires additional testing in other health care settings and physician populations. Physician adherence to hand hygiene is associated with work and system constraints, as well as knowledge and cognitive factors. At the individual level, strengthening a positive attitude toward hand hygiene and reinforcing the conviction that each individual can influence the group behavior may improve adherence among physicians. Physicians who work in technical specialties should also be targeted for improvement.

                Author and article information

                Braz J Infect Dis
                Braz J Infect Dis
                The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
                25 June 2016
                Sep-Oct 2016
                25 June 2016
                : 20
                : 5
                : 413-418
                [0005]Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Department of Hospital-Acquired Infection Management, Guiyang, China
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author. mumud117@ 123456163.com
                © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Original Article

                hand hygiene,compliance,hospital-acquired infection
                hand hygiene, compliance, hospital-acquired infection


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