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      Forest Fevers: traditional treatment of malaria in the southern lowlands of Laos

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d2241446e190">Malaria is still a highly challenging public health issue in southern Lao PDR, with increasing cases of artemisinin resistance and Plasmodium vivax infections which are more complicated to treat. Traditional medicine has a long history of use in Laos, and is primarily practised by traditional village healers, who possess unique bodies of transmitted knowledge focused on herbal prescriptions, including those for the treatment of malaria. Villagers also use plants for healthcare in the home. The aim of the study is to document local fever concepts and use of herbal remedies, and examine whether they may have potential as complementary treatments against malaria. </p>

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          Emergence of Indigenous Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Africa.

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            Antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial activities of tannin-rich fractions, ellagitannins and phenolic acids from Punica granatum L.

            The Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) by-product POMx was partitioned between water, EtOAc and n-BuOH, and the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts were purified by XAD-16 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to afford ellagic acid (1), gallagic acid (2), punicalins (3), and punicalagins (4). Compounds 1 - 4 and the mixture of tannin fractions (XAD-16 eluates) were evaluated for antioxidant, antiplasmodial, and antimicrobial activities in cell-based assays. The mixture of tannins (TPT), XAD-EtOAc, XAD-H2O, XAD-PJ and XAD-BuOH, exhibited IC50 values against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation at 0.8 - 19 microg/mL. Compounds 1 - 4 showed IC50 values of 1.1, 3.2, 2.3 and 1.4 microM, respectively, against ROS generation and no toxicity up to 31.25 microg/mL against HL-60 cells. Gallagic acid (2) and punicalagins (4) exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 clones with IC50 values of 10.9, 10.6, 7.5 and 8.8 microM, respectively. Fractions XAD-EtOAc, XAD-BuOH, XAD-H2O and XAD-PJ compounds 1 - 4 revealed antimicrobial activity when assayed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Aspergillus fumigatus and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Compounds 2 and 4 showed activity against P. aeruginosa, C. neoformans, and MRSA. This is the first report on the antioxidant, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of POMx isolates, including structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the free radical inhibition activity of compounds 1 - 4. Our results suggest a beneficial effect from the daily intake of POMx and pomegranate juice (PJ) as dietary supplements to augment the human immune system's antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial capacities.
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              Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance.

              Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Ethnopharmacology
                Journal of Ethnopharmacology
                Elsevier BV
                03788741
                March 2020
                March 2020
                : 249
                : 112187
                Article
                10.1016/j.jep.2019.112187
                31476439
                8fb07645-8001-4730-acc5-7f0355bd8b08
                © 2020

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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