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We present experimental procedures describing the creation of perforated patches by
use of amphotericin B. In 13 different cellular preparations, access resistances below
10 M omega were achieved and with blunt electrode tips, access resistances of 3-4
M omega were possible. In addition to using the techniques to measure whole cell currents,
we have used them to measure single channel currents in a new "outside-out patch"
preparation and we have utilized them to measure the resting voltage of epithelial
monolayers. We conclude that these new approaches can provide a substantial increase
in versatility and quality for many kinds of electrophysiological measurements.