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      Oviductal Extracellular Vesicles Improve Post-Thaw Sperm Function in Red Wolves and Cheetahs

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          Abstract

          Artificial insemination (AI) is a valuable tool for ex situ wildlife conservation, allowing the re-infusion and dissemination of genetic material, even after death of the donor. However, the application of AI to species conservation is still limited, due mainly to the poor survival of cryopreserved sperm. Recent work demonstrated that oviductal extracellular vesicles (oEVs) improved cat sperm motility and reduced premature acrosomal exocytosis. Here, we build on these findings by describing the protein content of dog and cat oEVs and investigating whether the incubation of cryopreserved red wolf and cheetah sperm with oEVs during thawing improves sperm function. Both red wolf and cheetah sperm thawed with dog and cat oEVs, respectively, had more intact acrosomes than the non-EV controls. Moreover, red wolf sperm thawed in the presence of dog oEVs better maintained sperm motility over time (>15%) though such an improvement was not observed in cheetah sperm. Our work demonstrates that dog and cat oEVs carry proteins important for sperm function and improve post-thaw motility and/or acrosome integrity of red wolf and cheetah sperm in vitro. The findings show how oEVs can be a valuable tool for improving the success of AI with cryopreserved sperm in threatened species.

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          Most cited references 95

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          Open mass spectrometry search algorithm.

          Large numbers of MS/MS peptide spectra generated in proteomics experiments require efficient, sensitive and specific algorithms for peptide identification. In the Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm (OMSSA), specificity is calculated by a classic probability score using an explicit model for matching experimental spectra to sequences. At default thresholds, OMSSA matches more spectra from a standard protein cocktail than a comparable algorithm. OMSSA is designed to be faster than published algorithms in searching large MS/MS datasets.
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            A Comparative Study of Serum Exosome Isolation Using Differential Ultracentrifugation and Three Commercial Reagents

            Exosomes play a role in cell-to-cell signaling and serve as possible biomarkers. Isolating exosomes with reliable quality and substantial concentration is a major challenge. Our purpose is to compare the exosomes extracted by three different exosome isolation kits (miRCURY, ExoQuick, and Invitrogen Total Exosome Isolation Reagent) and differential ultracentrifugation (UC) using six different volumes of a non-cancerous human serum (5 ml, 1 ml, 500 μl, 250 μl, 100 μl, and 50 μl) and three different volumes (1 ml, 500 μl and 100 μl) of six individual commercial serum samples collected from human donors. The smaller starting volumes (100 μl and 50 μl) are used to mimic conditions of limited availability of heterogeneous biological samples. The isolated exosomes were characterized based upon size, quantity, zeta potential, CD63 and CD9 protein expression, and exosomal RNA (exRNA) quality and quantity using several complementary methods: nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) with ZetaView, western blot, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the Agilent Bioanalyzer system, and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Our NTA results showed that all isolation techniques produced exosomes within the expected size range (40–150 nm). The three kits, though, produced a significantly higher yield (80–300 fold) of exosomes as compared to UC for all serum volumes, except 5 mL. We also found that exosomes isolated by the different techniques and serum volumes had similar zeta potentials to previous studies. Western blot analysis and TEM immunogold labelling confirmed the expression of two common exosomal protein markers, CD63 and CD9, in samples isolated by all techniques. All exosome isolations yielded high quality exRNA, containing mostly small RNA with a peak between 25 and 200 nucleotides in size. ddPCR results indicated that exosomes isolated from similar serum volumes but different isolation techniques rendered similar concentrations of two selected exRNA: hsa-miR-16 and hsa-miR-451. In summary, the three commercial exosome isolation kits are viable alternatives to UC, even when limited amounts of biological samples are available.
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              Exosomal lipid composition and the role of ether lipids and phosphoinositides in exosome biology

              Exosomes are a type of extracellular vesicle released from cells after fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. These vesicles are often enriched in cholesterol, SM, glycosphingolipids, and phosphatidylserine. Lipids not only have a structural role in exosomal membranes but also are essential players in exosome formation and release to the extracellular environment. Our knowledge about the importance of lipids in exosome biology is increasing due to recent technological developments in lipidomics and a stronger focus on the biological functions of these molecules. Here, we review the available information about the lipid composition of exosomes. Special attention is given to ether lipids, a relatively unexplored type of lipids involved in membrane trafficking and abundant in some exosomes. Moreover, we discuss how the lipid composition of exosome preparations may provide useful information about their purity. Finally, we discuss the role of phosphoinositides, membrane phospholipids that help to regulate membrane dynamics, in exosome release and how this process may be linked to secretory autophagy. Knowledge about exosome lipid composition is important to understand the biology of these vesicles and to investigate possible medical applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                25 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 21
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Smithsonian National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, VA 22630, USA; nagashimaj@ 123456si.edu (J.B.N.); michael.noonan@ 123456ubc.ca (M.J.N.); crosiera@ 123456si.edu (A.E.C.); songsasenn@ 123456si.edu (N.S.)
                [2 ]The Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 1177 Research Road, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ferrazm@ 123456si.edu
                [†]

                Authors contributed equally to this research.

                Article
                ijms-21-03733
                10.3390/ijms21103733
                7279450
                32466321
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology

                wildlife, gamete rescue, oviduct, cryopreservation, sperm

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